Question and Answer Forum

MISCO Refractometer Q&A Forum

Find answers to many common questions concerning applications, operation, calibration, and maintenance of refractometers:

Antifreeze & Heat Transfer (23)

Please advise if you have a meter that can measure glycol concentration in water? It will be used in a food processing industry.

We have two different types of refractometers that you can use to measure glycol concentration in water. The first is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol & Battery Tester. It is a traditional analog refractometer with scales for measuring both ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) freeze points. For more accuracy, the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be equipped with a number of scales for reading ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG). You may select from scales for measuring freeze point, concentration by weight or volume, specific gravity, density, and even boiling point. The Palm Abbe PA203X digital refractometer can be equipped with up to five different scales.

Hello, I am looking for a handheld portable device to measure the % mass ethylene glycol in a glycol / water solution. Thanks.

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales for measuring the percent by weight or percent by volume of ethylene glycol (EG) in an ethylene glycol (EG) / water solution. Just use the filters in the digital handheld refractometer section of the MISCO website to find the refractometer that is right for you. If you don’t see what you need, please contact MISCO customer service and we will create a custom refractometer to your specifications.

 

I need a refractometer to check Glycerin, and possibly propylene glycol. What handheld palm abbe would be best for me? The PA202 or PA203 Will the PA202 measure glycol? Does the pa203 come with pre-installed scales or custom scales for each use? My application is for antifreeze. Fahrenheit readings please. Please advise.

With the right combination of scales, either the Palm Abbe PA202x or PA203 digital refractometer will handle the job of measuring glycerin and propylene glycol antifreeze solutions. Scales are available to read nearly any physical property of glycerin and propylene glycol, including scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more.

Do you have any refractometer that can tell whether an unknown liquid is glycol or glycerin?

No, unfortunately a refractometer cannot tell the difference between glycol and glycerin. Although we do have refractometers with both glycol and glycerin scales, you must know which fluid you are testing and test it on the correct scale to get an accurate measurement of concentration or freeze point.

I have some questions about your 7084VP+ MISCO glycol and battery tester. How would I use this refractometer to verify a 30% glycol solution in one of our systems since the unit it reads are in degrees Fahrenheit?

You have two choices. First, ask your glycol supplier for a chart of glycol concentration to freeze point. They will be happy to supply you with one. Then measure the freeze point of the fluid with the 7084VP+ and look up the percent concentration corresponding to your freeze point measurement.

Can the Palm refractometer be used to check Trieythelene Glycol?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure several triethylene glycol (TEG) physical properties including, percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

What is the difference between the traditional analog Brix refractometer and the electronic digital handheld for Glycol testing? What are the benefits to having one over the other?

This is a good question. Brix is a measure of sucrose content in a sucrose water solution. There is not a direct linear relationship between Brix and glycol concentration. However, there may be a conversion chart available from your glycol supplier or you can make your own (we do not have conversion charts). Our analog Brix refractometer has a precision of +/- 0.2% Brix. The analog refractometer scale is subjective, meaning that two or more people looking at the scale are likely to report different readings depending how they view the scale. You also need to bring the glycol near your face to take a reading. Brix refractometers are temperature compensated for sucrose not glycol. Lastly, since you need to use a conversion table to manually calculate glycol freeze point, you introduce the possibility of making an error. A Palm Abbe digital refractometer with a scale for glycol would be a much better choice. First, the reading is digital which removes subjectivity from the measurement. Second, you can read directly in the unit of measure you desire, concentration or freeze point. This eliminates conversion errors. Since you place your sample in a well, you do not need to bring the refractometer near your face to read it. Also, a digital refractometer with a glycol scale will have temperature compensation specific to glycol. Lastly, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer has at least twice the accuracy of an analog Brix refractometer.

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

Hi, will your hand held (both glycerin/ glycol) read below zero. In Utah we are required to provide -0 readings. Please let me know.

The glycerin scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the freeze point of glycerin from +32 to -46 °F. It can read glycerin concentration from 0 to 100%. The propylene glycol scale for this refractometer can measure propylene glycol freeze point from +32 to -60 °F. It can also read propylene glycol concentration from 0 to 100%.

I need to know the percent volume of my glycol?

.There are two methods to determine the percent concentration of glycol in a system. If using the MISCO Glycol & Battery Tester (7084VP or 7064VP), take a reading of the glycol on the freeze point scale and then cross reference the freeze point reading to the percent volume column on a physical property chart, available from your glycol supplier. If using one the MISCO Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer, there are several scales available which directly display the concentration by volume of a glycol solution.

I need to detect Ethylene Glycol contamination in rain water as it flows through a pipe, in order to detect leakage from a heat-transfer system. I don’t need a measurement, simply a yes or no signal. Is this something you can supply?

The best method to detect low levels of ethylene glycol contamination in rain water is with the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Equipped with one of several ethylene glycol scales the Palm Abbe refractometer can detect ethylene glycol to +/-0.1%. Refractometer scales are available for measuring ethylene glycol percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

Products

Ethylene Glycol Refractometer – Ethylene Glycol Scales -Concentration & Freeze Point °C – MISCO Digital Refractometer

Ethylene Glycol Refractometer – Ethylene Glycol Scales – Concentration & Freeze Point °F-MISCO Digital Refractometer

I need a refractometer to check Glycerin, and possibly propylene glycol. What handheld palm abbe would be best for me? The PA202 or PA203 Will the PA202 measure glycol? Does the pa203 come with pre-installed scales or custom scales for each use? My application is for antifreeze. Fahrenheit readings please. Please advise.

With the right combination of scales, either the Palm Abbe PA202x or PA203 digital refractometer will handle the job of measuring glycerin and propylene glycol antifreeze solutions. Scales are available to read nearly any physical property of glycerin and propylene glycol, including scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more.  You can combine your own scale choices with our build your own tool, or consider the below products.

Glycerin-Propylene Glycol Refractomete- Glycerine- Propylene Glycol Scales-Percent Volume – Freeze Point °C- MISCO Digital Refractometer

Glycerine-Propylene Glycol Refractometer – Glycerine & Propylene Glycol Scales – Percent Volume – Freeze Point °F – MISCO Digital Refractometer

I am wanting to find out if you have a handheld meter that can measure: TEG EG DEG PG MEA DEA DGA Any assistance that you can provide would be greatly appreciated.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine). Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

I am looking for an refractometer to measure & control concentration of salt brine preparation for road deicing (at 23.3 %). Is your refractometer applicable to this service?

We have two options for your brine maker. First, is the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sodium chloride (NaCl). Scales are available for salt concentration as percent by weight, parts per thousand (ppt), or percent (%) saturation. There are also scales available for testing the freeze point of your brine solution. We also have scales available for measuring calcium chloride, urea, and magnesium chloride as well. The Palm Abbe can have up to five different scales so one refractometer can measure the concentration of all your deicing fluids. The second option, would be installing an inline refractometer on your brinemaker to monitor salt brine concentration in real-time. A 4 to 20 mA on the inline can be wired to a PLC and can open or close valves to draw off salt brine when it is at the proper concentration. The inline unit can measure sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride.

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salomete-; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine-Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °C – MISCO Digital Refractometer

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer- Sodium Chloride Salt Brine- Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °F -MISCO Digital Refractometer

I would like to obtain some additional information regarding your PALM ABBE PA202X-011-014 ethylene glycol refractometer. Our enquiry is related to the use of the refractometer for measuring runoff and surface waters for ethylene glycol. Specific questions are:

1. Units of measure. Does the instrument have the capability of reporting measurements in mg/L?

mg/L is a tough number to display on the refractometer. Refractometers typically measure in the parts per thousand range. Mg/L is parts per million. This is well beyond the detection threshold of most handheld refractometers.

2. What is the range (lower detection limit and upper limit) of detection of the instrument in mg/L?

0 to 1,000,000 mg/L Theoretical.

3. If there is an upper range, is there a procedure specified for sample dilution?

Upper range would be 100% EG. No dilution would be necessary.

4. Are there any properties of the matrix (water) that may interfere with the analyses (e.g., suspended solids, dissolved solids, pH)?

Dissolved solids are additive to refractive index. Any dissolved solids besides EG would cause an error in the reading. Most suspended solids should have no effect on the readings.

5. What is the precision and accuracy of the measurements (+/- in terms of mg/L)? Does the accuracy/precision vary according to sample concentration?

The average full scale precision would be approximately +/- 1.500 mg/L.  and Yes. It is approximately +/- 1.395 at the bottom of the scale and +/- 3.966 at 100% EG.

We are interested in determining the level of ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol in the field and wonder if the PA203 is suitable to do that.

Yes, scales are available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring both ethylene glycol (EG) and triethylene glycol (TEG). TEG scales are available for measuring percent by volume, percent by weight, freeze point, specific gravity (D20/20), and density. The same scales are available for ethylene glycol plus boiling point and percent water content. You can mix and match any five of these scales in the Palm Abbe PA203.

A vendor gave me your website to try and locate a meter that could tell me the percentage of Diethanolamine contained in a deionized water solution. We typically run approximately 25-30% DEA solution, and add deionized water or diethanolamine (DEA) to maintain this concentration. Do you provide a hand-held instrument that could analyze this for us?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales to read Diethanolamine (DEA) from 0 to 100 percent by weight. Just place a few drops of Diethanolamine (DEA) on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to get an instant reading of concentration.

What is the difference between freezepoint and burst point when testing with a refractometer.

Freezepoint is the point that the first ice crystals form in the absence of supercooling. Burst point is the point that the solution freezes solid and bursts the vessel containing it. The burst point is usually 30-50 degrees colder than the freezepoint. Our Glycol & Battery Tester reads the freezepoint of both ethylene and propylene glycol solutions. If you need to know the burst point, take a reading on the Glycol & Battery Tester and use a chart (available from your antifreeze supplier) to cross-reference freezepoint to burst point or percent concentration.

When using this to test % PG in water, is it possible to get a false positive at low levels (e.g., 0.1, 0.2)? Does the turbidity of the sample have any effect?

The uncertainty of the Palm Abbe digital refractometer PA203X with a propylene glycol (PG) scale is +/-0.1%. So, if you are testing pure water there is always the possibility of receiving a reading of either -0.1% or +0.1% concentration. To minimize the possibility of an erroneous reading, you can take multiple readings and average them together. Generally, turbidity caused by suspended solids will have little effect on refractive index measurement.

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

We have a pool with 18% salt (a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). Is there a digital device [refractometer] that can measure the % of salt in the water?

I have some concerns about your ability to measure percent salt in a multi-component mixture with a refractometer. You see, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) mixtures such as sodium chloride and water, where the refractive index value of water is a constant (static or known) and sodium chloride is the variable. However, when there are many different components in a solution, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index.

So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts has changed. Since a refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. Therefore it will be impossible to get a reading that is meaningful.

The Palm Abbe refractometer does have scales for binary solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), but cannot measure a mixture of all three.

I have a gas dehydration system which used TEG. Typical concentrations of Tri-ethylene Glycol (TEG) vary from 88% to 98%. Do you have a device that could measure the concentration of TEG to within +/- 0.5%. The typically impurities are 1) water ( 2-12%) and 2) oil (300- 1000 ppm). Thanks in advance.

No problem. Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the percent concentration of triethylene glycol (TEG) in your dehydration system from 0 to 100 percent (+/- 0.1%). You can choose a scale for TEG percent by concentration or TEG percent water. The oil contaminate should not be a problem because the refractometer only measures in the parts per thousand (ppt) range, not in parts per million.

 

Can I check the glycol water ratio in ice rink using a refractometer? If yes, please tell me which type and also from where I can get your meter.

Propylene glycol is the heat transfer fluid of choice for most ice rinks. We have several propylene glycol refractometers to choose from depending on your preferences and budget. One is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol & Battery Tester. The 7084VP+ is a traditional analog refractometer with freeze point scales for both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The other alternative is one of several versions of the MISCO Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer.

Choose from propylene glycol models with scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more. To view our complete line of propylene glycol refractometers, you can select the platform of interest and use the filters to limit the selection until you find what you need. Alternatively, you can use the Build Your Own Refractometer section to select the exact propylene glycol scales that you need.

 

Battery Maintenance (4)

Which hand-held digital refractometer would be best for checking specific gravity of industrial battery electrolyte (sulfuric acid and water)? Need a minimum range of 1.100 to 1.350.

The Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer is the best choice for measuring the specific gravity sulfuric acid based battery electrolyte. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for this refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501 so it should more than cover your range of interest.

I have a model 10440 Refractometer. My question is what reading should i get for lead-acid batteries at full charge? I currently am reading from 16 to 26 on two different batteries.

The MISCO 10440VP is a great refractometer for testing the concentration of metalworking fluids but it is the wrong instrument for measuring state of charge of lead-acid batteries.

A better choice would be either the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester, a handheld traditional analog refractometer with a scale for reading the specific gravity of battery electrolyte, or, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sulfuric acid concentration.

There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, and percent by weight. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for the MISCO 7084VP+ is 1.00 to 1.400 and the range for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501. The Palm Abbe is an order of magnitude more accurate than the 7084VP+.

Could I use a Refractometer to measure the density of flooded batteries. Density is 1.200-1.260?

We have two great tools for measuring the density of battery electrolyte in flooded batteries. The first is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester. The 7084VP+ is a traditional analog refractometer with a scale for the specific gravity of sulfuric acid from 1.000 to 1.400. There are also a number of scales available for the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure sulfuric acid density, specific gravity, concentration (% by weight) well beyond your range of interest.

Products:
Glycol and Battery Tester ; Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol,  ; Battery Acid Scales  ; Freeze Point °C  Specific Gravity ; MISCO 7064VP+ Refractometer

Glycol and Battery Tester – Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Battery Acid Scales   Freeze Point °F Specific Gravity  MISCO 7084VP+ Refractometer

Do you have a digital model for reading the specific gravity of lead acid battery?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer represents the perfect method for measuring the concentration or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4), or state of charge, in a lead-acid battery. There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, percent by weight. Try our Build-Your-Own section. You can choose up to 5 custom scales!

Beer (3)

Can your digital refractometer be used to determine balling (sugars) in distillers mash? The standard has been to use a balling hydrometer. Also would there be one to determine alcohol in the fermenting mash? The max is around 9% by volume.

Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring the sugar content of mash for beer makers. You can use either the Brix scale or the balling scale for this. Once fermentation begins a refractometer cannot be used to “directly’ measure either the sugar content or the ethanol content since they will interfere with each other. However, there are some indirect methods using the Brix scale to monitor fermentation.

We are a California manufacturer of a carbonated low-alcohol beverage and are looking for a relatively low-cost way to test samples to make sure alcohol is below 0.5%. Would your refractometer work for this?

Unless your beverage is just ethanol and water, a refractometer will not be able to directly measure the alcohol content. This is because sugars in the solution will conflict with a reading of alcohol and vice a versa. Probably the best way to test this is by distilling the beverage and measuring the distillate with a Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with an ethanol scale.

We use your Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer for making sorbet, and love it! But we’re confused as to how it operates on solutions that contain sugar and alcohol in combination: the readings don’t seem to make sense. Is there a way to compensate for this?

Unfortunately it is not possible to measure sugar contents and alcohol content in combination in a sorbet or other solution using a refractometer. Refractometers are very good at measuring binary solutions (two-part), such as water and sugar, where water is a constant and sugar is a variable. However, a refractometer is not very good for measuring multi-component solutions such as water, sugar, and alcohol. When there are several different components in a solution, such as water, sugar, and alcohol, it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index. So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts changed. A refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. So, depending on the concentrations of the other constituents, it may be difficult to get an accurate reading of any one component.

Brake Fluid (1)

How do you know when to change DOT brake fluid?

It is generally believed that a moisture content of less than 2% is safe for most driving conditions in most parts of the U.S. Conventional wisdom says that a moisture content of 2 to 3% is marginal and that it should absolutely be changed at 3%. You should consult your vehicles owner’s manual or vehicle manufacturer for their recommendations with respect to your specific car. A car generally absorbs about 1% moisture per year of service life. Many motor vehicle companies recommend changing brake fluid every 12-months, others recommend changing every 24-months. The amount of moisture that brake fluid absorbs depends on a number of factors including the type of fluid, humidity, type of brake hoses, condition of the seals and mileage.

Chemicals (14)

Hello, I am looking for a handheld portable device to measure the % mass ethylene glycol in a glycol / water solution. Thanks.

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales for measuring the percent by weight or percent by volume of ethylene glycol (EG) in an ethylene glycol (EG) / water solution. Just use the filters in the digital handheld refractometer section of the MISCO website to find the refractometer that is right for you. If you don’t see what you need, please contact MISCO customer service and we will create a custom refractometer to your specifications.

 

Can the Palm refractometer be used to check Trieythelene Glycol?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure several triethylene glycol (TEG) physical properties including, percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

Hi, I’m interested in purchasing a refractometer, but I am not sure which type is suited to my needs. I plan to use it in order to verify concentrations of Urea concentration. The temperature of the solution will be 35 degrees Celsius, and I want to use high concentrations, 6M-8M Urea. Can you please advise as to which device is best suited to my needs?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring urea concentration. There are scales to read Molarity 0.0 to 8.6, as well as scales for percent by weight, specific gravity, density, freeze point (Celsius and Fahrenheit), and parts per thousand. The refractometer is automatically temperature corrected for temperatures between 10 to 45 °C (50 to 113 °F). If you can’t decide which urea scale that you need, that’s ok; you can select any five scales to be programmed into a Palm Abbe PA203x. Please give us a call, customer service will be happy to help you select the scales that you need.

Category: Chemicals

What is the difference between the traditional analog Brix refractometer and the electronic digital handheld for Glycol testing? What are the benefits to having one over the other?

This is a good question. Brix is a measure of sucrose content in a sucrose water solution. There is not a direct linear relationship between Brix and glycol concentration. However, there may be a conversion chart available from your glycol supplier or you can make your own (we do not have conversion charts). Our analog Brix refractometer has a precision of +/- 0.2% Brix. The analog refractometer scale is subjective, meaning that two or more people looking at the scale are likely to report different readings depending how they view the scale. You also need to bring the glycol near your face to take a reading. Brix refractometers are temperature compensated for sucrose not glycol. Lastly, since you need to use a conversion table to manually calculate glycol freeze point, you introduce the possibility of making an error. A Palm Abbe digital refractometer with a scale for glycol would be a much better choice. First, the reading is digital which removes subjectivity from the measurement. Second, you can read directly in the unit of measure you desire, concentration or freeze point. This eliminates conversion errors. Since you place your sample in a well, you do not need to bring the refractometer near your face to read it. Also, a digital refractometer with a glycol scale will have temperature compensation specific to glycol. Lastly, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer has at least twice the accuracy of an analog Brix refractometer.

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

Very interested, yet ignorant about this technology. I need reliability in testing % NaCl in water softening applications as well as concentrations of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sodium sulfite. Do I need multiple instruments? Can I get the meter to read in ppm of sodium sulfite? Can the meter(s) read in % saturation of NaCl? I am used to reading hydrometers for all but sodium sulfite, can the instruments give the same read out in % acid or caustic? I really do not understand the BRIX scale and how that will look when all I want is the strength of acid or % saturation of NaCl. Thanks,

There are many scales available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. In general, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) fluids, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) and water. Where the sodium chloride is the variable and water is the constant. For these types of binary fluids, the resolution (detection threshold) is typically in parts per thousand (ppt). Measurements of concentrations in the parts per million rage is not possible with a handheld refractometer.

As long as you can accept measurements in the parts per thousand, percent saturation, or concentration, then a refractometer would be useful for you. We have scales available for directly measuring sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrochloric acid (HCL), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), provided that your fluid is just one of those chemicals and water. If there are more than two parts to the solution, a refractometer could not discriminate which part was causing a change in the overall refractive index.

The Brix scale is a measure of the percent of sucrose in a sucrose/water solution. This scale would not be of any use to you unless you have a conversion table.

Check out our Build Your Own Page and put together scales that make sense for your full application.

Category: Chemicals

I am wanting to find out if you have a handheld meter that can measure: TEG EG DEG PG MEA DEA DGA Any assistance that you can provide would be greatly appreciated.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine). Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

I would like to obtain some additional information regarding your PALM ABBE PA202X-011-014 ethylene glycol refractometer. Our enquiry is related to the use of the refractometer for measuring runoff and surface waters for ethylene glycol. Specific questions are:

1. Units of measure. Does the instrument have the capability of reporting measurements in mg/L?

mg/L is a tough number to display on the refractometer. Refractometers typically measure in the parts per thousand range. Mg/L is parts per million. This is well beyond the detection threshold of most handheld refractometers.

2. What is the range (lower detection limit and upper limit) of detection of the instrument in mg/L?

0 to 1,000,000 mg/L Theoretical.

3. If there is an upper range, is there a procedure specified for sample dilution?

Upper range would be 100% EG. No dilution would be necessary.

4. Are there any properties of the matrix (water) that may interfere with the analyses (e.g., suspended solids, dissolved solids, pH)?

Dissolved solids are additive to refractive index. Any dissolved solids besides EG would cause an error in the reading. Most suspended solids should have no effect on the readings.

5. What is the precision and accuracy of the measurements (+/- in terms of mg/L)? Does the accuracy/precision vary according to sample concentration?

The average full scale precision would be approximately +/- 1.500 mg/L.  and Yes. It is approximately +/- 1.395 at the bottom of the scale and +/- 3.966 at 100% EG.

A vendor gave me your website to try and locate a meter that could tell me the percentage of Diethanolamine contained in a deionized water solution. We typically run approximately 25-30% DEA solution, and add deionized water or diethanolamine (DEA) to maintain this concentration. Do you provide a hand-held instrument that could analyze this for us?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales to read Diethanolamine (DEA) from 0 to 100 percent by weight. Just place a few drops of Diethanolamine (DEA) on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to get an instant reading of concentration.

When using this to test % PG in water, is it possible to get a false positive at low levels (e.g., 0.1, 0.2)? Does the turbidity of the sample have any effect?

The uncertainty of the Palm Abbe digital refractometer PA203X with a propylene glycol (PG) scale is +/-0.1%. So, if you are testing pure water there is always the possibility of receiving a reading of either -0.1% or +0.1% concentration. To minimize the possibility of an erroneous reading, you can take multiple readings and average them together. Generally, turbidity caused by suspended solids will have little effect on refractive index measurement.

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

We have a pool with 18% salt (a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). Is there a digital device [refractometer] that can measure the % of salt in the water?

I have some concerns about your ability to measure percent salt in a multi-component mixture with a refractometer. You see, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) mixtures such as sodium chloride and water, where the refractive index value of water is a constant (static or known) and sodium chloride is the variable. However, when there are many different components in a solution, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index.

So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts has changed. Since a refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. Therefore it will be impossible to get a reading that is meaningful.

The Palm Abbe refractometer does have scales for binary solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), but cannot measure a mixture of all three.

I’m interested in testing calcium chloride (CaCl2) at a 30% concentration. This would be to verify identity of totes. Is this possible with a refractometer?

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed to measure calcium chloride. In fact there are several calcium chloride scales that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe refractometer to measure calcium chloride percent by weight, grams/ 100 grams, ppt, density, specific gravity, and freeze point in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. All of the Calcium Chloride scales can measure the equivalent of 0 to 40% w/w, with the exception of the freeze point scales which measure to the maximum freeze point.

Categories: Chemicals, Deicing

I have a gas dehydration system which used TEG. Typical concentrations of Tri-ethylene Glycol (TEG) vary from 88% to 98%. Do you have a device that could measure the concentration of TEG to within +/- 0.5%. The typically impurities are 1) water ( 2-12%) and 2) oil (300- 1000 ppm). Thanks in advance.

No problem. Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the percent concentration of triethylene glycol (TEG) in your dehydration system from 0 to 100 percent (+/- 0.1%). You can choose a scale for TEG percent by concentration or TEG percent water. The oil contaminate should not be a problem because the refractometer only measures in the parts per thousand (ppt) range, not in parts per million.

 

Dairy (1)

I am interested in purchasing a digital refractometer to test colostrum. I recently saw one of your models at a meeting but they didn’t tell us what model.

As you know colostrum quality is essential to calf health and IgG concentration is a direct indication of colostrum quality. It is no secret that the failure of passive transfer of IgG results in increased disease and death. Numerous studies point to the use of a refractometer as an excellent means of evaluating colostrum quality. The MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer is the best instrument to use for measuring bovine colostrum. It is generally accepted that a Brix reading of 22 or above is an indication that the colostrum quality is good.

Dairy Calf Management (1)

I am interested in purchasing a digital refractometer to test colostrum. I recently saw one of your models at a meeting but they didn’t tell us what model.

As you know colostrum quality is essential to calf health and IgG concentration is a direct indication of colostrum quality. It is no secret that the failure of passive transfer of IgG results in increased disease and death. Numerous studies point to the use of a refractometer as an excellent means of evaluating colostrum quality. The MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer is the best instrument to use for measuring bovine colostrum. It is generally accepted that a Brix reading of 22 or above is an indication that the colostrum quality is good.

Deicing (5)

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

I am looking for an refractometer to measure & control concentration of salt brine preparation for road deicing (at 23.3 %). Is your refractometer applicable to this service?

We have two options for your brine maker. First, is the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sodium chloride (NaCl). Scales are available for salt concentration as percent by weight, parts per thousand (ppt), or percent (%) saturation. There are also scales available for testing the freeze point of your brine solution. We also have scales available for measuring calcium chloride, urea, and magnesium chloride as well. The Palm Abbe can have up to five different scales so one refractometer can measure the concentration of all your deicing fluids. The second option, would be installing an inline refractometer on your brinemaker to monitor salt brine concentration in real-time. A 4 to 20 mA on the inline can be wired to a PLC and can open or close valves to draw off salt brine when it is at the proper concentration. The inline unit can measure sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride.

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salomete-; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine-Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °C – MISCO Digital Refractometer

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer- Sodium Chloride Salt Brine- Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °F -MISCO Digital Refractometer

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

We have a pool with 18% salt (a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). Is there a digital device [refractometer] that can measure the % of salt in the water?

I have some concerns about your ability to measure percent salt in a multi-component mixture with a refractometer. You see, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) mixtures such as sodium chloride and water, where the refractive index value of water is a constant (static or known) and sodium chloride is the variable. However, when there are many different components in a solution, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index.

So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts has changed. Since a refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. Therefore it will be impossible to get a reading that is meaningful.

The Palm Abbe refractometer does have scales for binary solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), but cannot measure a mixture of all three.

I’m interested in testing calcium chloride (CaCl2) at a 30% concentration. This would be to verify identity of totes. Is this possible with a refractometer?

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed to measure calcium chloride. In fact there are several calcium chloride scales that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe refractometer to measure calcium chloride percent by weight, grams/ 100 grams, ppt, density, specific gravity, and freeze point in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. All of the Calcium Chloride scales can measure the equivalent of 0 to 40% w/w, with the exception of the freeze point scales which measure to the maximum freeze point.

Categories: Chemicals, Deicing

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (2)

Do you know of a refractometer that measures the shelf-life of DEF? I’m not as concerned about our contamination as I am the risk. I’ve heard that comes from it sitting idle in a tank for too long.

A Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) refractometer cannot tell you the quality or shelf-life of the DEF, it can only provide you a measure of urea concentration. However, a concentration measurement can tell you if the DEF is over or under concentrated, and may indicate tampering. The MISCO DEF201 and DEF202 digital handheld refractometers can measure the concentration of urea in DEF but this is a measure of concentration only.

Can you use a refractometer to measure DEF Quantity? Is it acceptable practice to add water to adjust over-concentrated samples?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer (DEF201 or DEF202) can be used to very accurately measure urea concentration in DEF to +/-0.1%. DEF is a composition of ultra-pure urea and demineralized water. ISO standards call for DEF to be 32.5% (+/-0.8%). If your DEF is over-concentrated, due to evaporation, you can add demineralized water to return the measurement to 32.5%. However, you should NEVER add tap water or well water to a DEF. Doing so can cause irreparable damage to your SCR components.

Engine Coolant (1)

We are specifically wanting to measure both Engine Coolant and Windshield Washer Fluid for % concentration and Freeze point. The Coolant is water and Propylene Glycol mixed seeking % Glycol in the mixture. The Windshield Washer fluid is a Methanol and Water mix where they want to know % Methanol. These define freeze point.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is the ideal way to measure automotive fluids. The refractometer can be programmed with scales for ethylene glycol (EG) & propylene glycol (PG) engine coolants, methanol for windshield washer fluid, and even brake fluid moisture content. You can select from refractometer scales that display freeze point or concentration for any of these fluids. Use the filters on the Product/Digital Handheld page to select a refractometer with the scales that you need. If you cannot find a refractometer that fits your needs, try the Build-Your-Own Refractometer section or call MISCO customer service. We will be happy to custom program a refractometer for you with the exact scales you need.

Fire Protection (8)

I need a refractometer to check Glycerin, and possibly propylene glycol. What handheld palm abbe would be best for me? The PA202 or PA203 Will the PA202 measure glycol? Does the pa203 come with pre-installed scales or custom scales for each use? My application is for antifreeze. Fahrenheit readings please. Please advise.

With the right combination of scales, either the Palm Abbe PA202x or PA203 digital refractometer will handle the job of measuring glycerin and propylene glycol antifreeze solutions. Scales are available to read nearly any physical property of glycerin and propylene glycol, including scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more.

Do you have any refractometer that can tell whether an unknown liquid is glycol or glycerin?

No, unfortunately a refractometer cannot tell the difference between glycol and glycerin. Although we do have refractometers with both glycol and glycerin scales, you must know which fluid you are testing and test it on the correct scale to get an accurate measurement of concentration or freeze point.

Hello, I am looking to buy a palm abbe for the purpose of testing glycerine based liquids which model would you recommend?

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with a glycerin concentration or freezepoint scale is the simplest and most accurate means of testing glycerin/water solutions. Scales are available for measuring glycerin percent by weight or percent by volume, freeze point, density, or specific gravity.

Category: Fire Protection

Hi, will your hand held (both glycerin/ glycol) read below zero. In Utah we are required to provide -0 readings. Please let me know.

The glycerin scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the freeze point of glycerin from +32 to -46 °F. It can read glycerin concentration from 0 to 100%. The propylene glycol scale for this refractometer can measure propylene glycol freeze point from +32 to -60 °F. It can also read propylene glycol concentration from 0 to 100%.

I was searching for a high quality digital refractometer when came across your company website. Basically the refractometer will be used to check the water to foam ratio of a fire fighters water tank (fire engine). I would appreciate if you suggest a suitable model with high precision and I would like to obtain the price and delivery time.

Our Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer is ideal for measuring firefighting foam concentration. The Palm Abbe PA202 has a refractive index scale with a precision of +/-0.0001 nD20 (refractive index). For more information, please search our site for PA202.

Category: Fire Protection

Need a refractometer that will read glycerin based antifreeze for fire suppression. Firefight GL is the product we use. Thanks.

You can test both glycerin concentration and freeze point with the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Model PA202-16-18 has scales for glycerin concentration by volume and glycerin freeze point in degrees Fahrenheit. Other models have scales for both glycerin and propylene glycol. Trying searching for “glycerin” in the Palm Abbe product area to find the refractometer with the scales that you need.

Products

Glycerine- Propylene Glycol Refractometer- Glycerine-; Propylene Glycol Scale-Percent Volume-Freeze Point °C– Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Propylene Glycol Refractometer Glycerine Propylene Glycol Scales  Percent Volume  Freeze Point °F  Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Refractometer ; Glycerine Scales Concentration Freeze Point °C – Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Refractometer Glycerine Scales  Concentration Freeze Point °F-Digital Refractometer

Category: Fire Protection

What is the difference between freezepoint and burst point when testing with a refractometer.

Freezepoint is the point that the first ice crystals form in the absence of supercooling. Burst point is the point that the solution freezes solid and bursts the vessel containing it. The burst point is usually 30-50 degrees colder than the freezepoint. Our Glycol & Battery Tester reads the freezepoint of both ethylene and propylene glycol solutions. If you need to know the burst point, take a reading on the Glycol & Battery Tester and use a chart (available from your antifreeze supplier) to cross-reference freezepoint to burst point or percent concentration.

Please kindly furnish me with information and price on a refractometer for testing airport foam solutions for dealing with aircraft fires. The test we do presently is visual. We would like to upgrade, especially now that we have new Rescue and Fire Fighting Trucks that produce AFFF and FFFP foam solutions. We would like our inspectors to be using it to assess the foam solution concentration, quality and performance.

The best method for measuring AFFF and FFFP fire-fighting foam solutions is with the MISCO Palm Abbe PA202 digital refractometer. The PA202 has a scale for refractive index and a precision of +/- 0.0001 refractive index units, making it ideal for field testing firefighting foam.  Our best device for this is our Brix Refractometer – with Refractive Index measurement. 

Category: Fire Protection

Food & Beverage (19)

Want to purchase an inline refractometer for the measurement of concentration of glucose fructose and fructose, which will give 4-20mA output which can be interfaced to a card.

One of our Inline Process Refractometers would be ideal for measuring the concentration of glucose and fructose in a process fluid. The VIP refractometer has a 4 to 20 mA output so it will be no problem interfacing with a card, PLC, or other controller.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

Can your digital refractometer be used to determine balling (sugars) in distillers mash? The standard has been to use a balling hydrometer. Also would there be one to determine alcohol in the fermenting mash? The max is around 9% by volume.

Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring the sugar content of mash for beer makers. You can use either the Brix scale or the balling scale for this. Once fermentation begins a refractometer cannot be used to “directly’ measure either the sugar content or the ethanol content since they will interfere with each other. However, there are some indirect methods using the Brix scale to monitor fermentation.

We would like to know about a refractometer that can be used for measuring sugar, glucose and fructose. Ours is an inline application.

Nearly any one of our Inline Process Refractometer is ideal for measuring the concentration of sugar, glucose, and fructose in a fluid. Virtually any scale that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can also be programmed into the VIP inline refractometer. We have scales available for sugar, glucose, and fructose, and well as many other types of sugar.

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

We required refractometer or any other suitable equipment to measure the sucrose in honey with accuracy. Is there any authorized dealer for this product in India? Or, who should we contact to purchase the same?

If you contact customer service, they will be happy to give you the name of our distributor in India. Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content. The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.

Category: Honey

I have one of your Maple Syrup Palm Abbe refractometers and was wondering if it is possible to add an additional scale for reading invert sugars by percent. And if so how much would it cost for you to add the scale to my device?

Thank you for purchasing the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring maple syrup. You can add additional measurement scales to a Palm Abbe refractometer depending on the base Palm Abbe model that you have. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA201 can only contain a single scale. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA202 can contain up to two scales. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA203 can contain up to five scales. If you send your Palm Abbe refractometer back to us we can reprogram it for a fee. Reprogramming charges apply to scale changes and scale additions. We have several scales for invert sugar.

Categories: Maple Syrup, Sugars

Hi, I just bought the Palm Abbe refractometer with 5 scales from you. I have tried it at our office but I cannot get it come to the right results. We are only going to measure total sugar content and alcohol in wines (finished wines). I have calibrated it with distilled water and it seems to measure water to 0.0 every time which is ok. As soon as i measure alcohol in red wine it always shows too high digits – up to 18-20% ABV and the sugar is always too high. What may the problem be in this case?

The problem is that you cannot directly measure the alcohol content in finished wine using a refractometer. Once fermentation begins ethanol and the residual sugar interfere with each other and prevent an accurate reading of either sugar content or alcohol content. The best method for determining the alcohol content in the wine is distillation. There are also some good methods of estimating alcohol and sugar content during fermentation and later in the finished wine. For more information, download a copy of our free guide, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

We are a small winery on premise in Michigan and we make our wines from Must and kits only, we don’t crush the grapes. Is there a refractometer you could recommend for our purposes which could tell us actual specific gravity and Actual Alcohol readings of finished wine?

A refractometer is very useful at nearly all stages of wine production. It can be used to help assess the ripeness of grapes before harvest, predict alcohol content from the must, measure the sugar content of must, monitor the fermentation process, and determine the alcohol by volume (ABV) of the finished wine. A refractometer with the Brix scale is the best method of determining the sugar concentration of the grapes and must. Scales are available that can predict the alcohol content of the finished wine based on must measurements. Once fermentation begins ethanol will interfere with sugar readings and you will not be able to take direct readings of either alcohol content or sugar content, without using special techniques. Once the wine is finished, the same refractometer, with an ethanol scale, can be used to measure the distillate of the wine to accurately determine alcohol content.
Click the following link to download a copy of our technical bulletin on “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

I am interested in the VIN06 refractometer for the determination of alcohol in fortified wines. What is the process for determining the alcohol – it appears you have to distil the wine before measuring it with the refractometer. How would I do this?

You cannot directly measure the alcohol content in a finished wine with a refractometer. However, you can distil the wine and then use the alcohol scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to measure the ethanol content of the distillate. More information can be found in our technical bulletin  “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

We are looking for a Quantitative Determination of Sucralose, in order to control the dosing accurately. Please tell me is there any solution.

Thank you for your question. The best method of measuring Sucralose and Splenda is with the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Scales are available for this refractometer to accurately measure the concentration of both Sucralose (0 to 28% w/w) and Splenda (0 to 45 % w/w) with a resolution of 0.1%.

Product : Splenda-Sucralose Digital Refractometer

 Hello, I am looking for a perfect personal device for testing honey quality. I always use honey for medication. Unfortunately, I cannot note the difference between the good or bad honey. Some honey products involve high percentage of sugar and this really effects the quality of honey. So, Please let me know what the good device for testing honey.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for testing either the moisture content or total solids content of honey. There are three base honey models to choose from. Each of the three honey refractometers has different scale combinations. For more information on honey refractometers, search for honey or navigate to the Digital Handheld category and use the filters to view the selection of honey refractometers. A honey technical bulleting is available from MISCO customer service or from any of the honey refractometer pages.

Category: Honey

If the sugar you wish to measure is sucrose, that’s an easy question to answer. The PA201 Palm Abbe digital refractometer is a single scale refractometer that displays readings on the Brix scale from 0 to 56 %. Brix is the equivalent of percent sucrose by weight. If you are measuring another sugar, such as fructose, maltose, dextrose, invert sugar, or different corn syrup blends, including high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), there is a scale available that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to meet your needs.

Suggested Base Product: Brix Refractometer – MISCO PA201

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content.

The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.”

Category: Honey

We are a California manufacturer of a carbonated low-alcohol beverage and are looking for a relatively low-cost way to test samples to make sure alcohol is below 0.5%. Would your refractometer work for this?

Unless your beverage is just ethanol and water, a refractometer will not be able to directly measure the alcohol content. This is because sugars in the solution will conflict with a reading of alcohol and vice a versa. Probably the best way to test this is by distilling the beverage and measuring the distillate with a Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with an ethanol scale.

We use your Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer for making sorbet, and love it! But we’re confused as to how it operates on solutions that contain sugar and alcohol in combination: the readings don’t seem to make sense. Is there a way to compensate for this?

Unfortunately it is not possible to measure sugar contents and alcohol content in combination in a sorbet or other solution using a refractometer. Refractometers are very good at measuring binary solutions (two-part), such as water and sugar, where water is a constant and sugar is a variable. However, a refractometer is not very good for measuring multi-component solutions such as water, sugar, and alcohol. When there are several different components in a solution, such as water, sugar, and alcohol, it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index. So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts changed. A refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. So, depending on the concentrations of the other constituents, it may be difficult to get an accurate reading of any one component.

Can you please kindly advise us if your company manufactures a refractometer with a range of 1.3330 – 1.3340 on the standard refractive index scale and/or 0 to 5 on the Brix Scale.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine).

Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

I am looking for a small, digital refractometer to measure sugar, dextrose, and glucose up to 85 brix in the ice cream manufacturing business. Which is the right model for me?

Providing that the ratio of sugar, dextrose, and glucose in your solution is relatively constant, the Palm Abbe PA202 refractometer can measure Brix up to 85 Brix.

Might we suggest the PA-202 Brix Scale Handheld Refractometer to meet your needs.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

How accurate is your refractometer when alcohol is present? Can I measure R.S. [residual sugar] in wine? thanks

Alcohol and sugar interferes with each other when measuring finished wine with a refractometer. You cannot measure the alcohol content in a finished wine directly using a refractometer, nor can you directly measure the residual sugar content. There are however, a couple of tricks that you can use to determine alcohol content and residual sugar content using a refractometer. These methods and more are discussed in detail in our technical bulletin, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

Gas Treatment (5)

Can the Palm refractometer be used to check Trieythelene Glycol?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure several triethylene glycol (TEG) physical properties including, percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

I am interested in the refractometer. We use triethylene glycol for gas dehydration and I would like to know if this meter will tell us the % water in the glycol. We also use amine Ucarsol 302. The amine mix is 50% Ucarsol and 50% deionized water, will the refractometer check this mix?

Triethylene glycol (TEG) scales are available for the MISO Palm Abbe digital refractometer. You can select scales that measure percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point. We also have a scales available for amines like, Diethanolomine (DEA), Diglycolamine (DGA), and Monoethanolomine (MEA). We don’t have a scale available for amine Ucarsol 302 but we would be happy to work with you to create one.

Category: Gas Treatment

I am wanting to find out if you have a handheld meter that can measure: TEG EG DEG PG MEA DEA DGA Any assistance that you can provide would be greatly appreciated.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine). Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

We are interested in determining the level of ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol in the field and wonder if the PA203 is suitable to do that.

Yes, scales are available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring both ethylene glycol (EG) and triethylene glycol (TEG). TEG scales are available for measuring percent by volume, percent by weight, freeze point, specific gravity (D20/20), and density. The same scales are available for ethylene glycol plus boiling point and percent water content. You can mix and match any five of these scales in the Palm Abbe PA203.

I have a gas dehydration system which used TEG. Typical concentrations of Tri-ethylene Glycol (TEG) vary from 88% to 98%. Do you have a device that could measure the concentration of TEG to within +/- 0.5%. The typically impurities are 1) water ( 2-12%) and 2) oil (300- 1000 ppm). Thanks in advance.

No problem. Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the percent concentration of triethylene glycol (TEG) in your dehydration system from 0 to 100 percent (+/- 0.1%). You can choose a scale for TEG percent by concentration or TEG percent water. The oil contaminate should not be a problem because the refractometer only measures in the parts per thousand (ppt) range, not in parts per million.

 

Honey (3)

We required refractometer or any other suitable equipment to measure the sucrose in honey with accuracy. Is there any authorized dealer for this product in India? Or, who should we contact to purchase the same?

If you contact customer service, they will be happy to give you the name of our distributor in India. Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content. The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.

Category: Honey

 Hello, I am looking for a perfect personal device for testing honey quality. I always use honey for medication. Unfortunately, I cannot note the difference between the good or bad honey. Some honey products involve high percentage of sugar and this really effects the quality of honey. So, Please let me know what the good device for testing honey.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for testing either the moisture content or total solids content of honey. There are three base honey models to choose from. Each of the three honey refractometers has different scale combinations. For more information on honey refractometers, search for honey or navigate to the Digital Handheld category and use the filters to view the selection of honey refractometers. A honey technical bulleting is available from MISCO customer service or from any of the honey refractometer pages.

Category: Honey

Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content.

The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.”

Category: Honey

Maple Syrup (1)

I have one of your Maple Syrup Palm Abbe refractometers and was wondering if it is possible to add an additional scale for reading invert sugars by percent. And if so how much would it cost for you to add the scale to my device?

Thank you for purchasing the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring maple syrup. You can add additional measurement scales to a Palm Abbe refractometer depending on the base Palm Abbe model that you have. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA201 can only contain a single scale. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA202 can contain up to two scales. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA203 can contain up to five scales. If you send your Palm Abbe refractometer back to us we can reprogram it for a fee. Reprogramming charges apply to scale changes and scale additions. We have several scales for invert sugar.

Categories: Maple Syrup, Sugars

Medical & Veterinary (3)

I am interested in purchasing a digital refractometer to test colostrum. I recently saw one of your models at a meeting but they didn’t tell us what model.

As you know colostrum quality is essential to calf health and IgG concentration is a direct indication of colostrum quality. It is no secret that the failure of passive transfer of IgG results in increased disease and death. Numerous studies point to the use of a refractometer as an excellent means of evaluating colostrum quality. The MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer is the best instrument to use for measuring bovine colostrum. It is generally accepted that a Brix reading of 22 or above is an indication that the colostrum quality is good.

I am looking at ordering a Palm Abbe Digital Refractometer to use to test for drug diversion in our hospital. Which of the three models would you recommend? I would like to use it to test mainly for Fentanyl, Morphine, Meperidine & midazolam. Thank you.

A refractometer has become an essential tool in the fight to prevent the theft or diversion of injectable drugs. The Palm Abbe PA202 is probably the best choice for testing injectable narcotics. It has both Brix and refractive index scales against which drugs may be standardized. A refractometer can be used in the central pharmacy, satellite pharmacies, surgical units, and nursing units. They are equally useful to pharmacists, nursing supervisors and security personnel or drug diversion investigators. Letting hospital staff members know that drugs are under surveillance, and that they will be tested when returned, will also have preventative effect.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

I am looking for a chart of what the medication should show up as on the brix scale. I want to use the Palm abbe digital refractometer mostly for Fentanyl, midazolam, morphine pf, ketamine, morphine, meperidine, sufentanil, and astramorph. If you know of where I can find this information that would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you for your question. There is no standard chart of Brix or refractive index value of injectable narcotics as measured by refractometer. The reason is that there are small variations between lots and also between manufacturers. The best method is to characterize each of the fluids that you commonly use yourself to create a uniform control standard (reference measurements). All future measurements of the reference drugs can then be compared to your control standards.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

Metalworking (2)

Looking for a refractometer to test metalworking fluids for grinding at concentrations from 0.5 to 4%, current analog scale 0 – 15% is too large and we cannot see concentration movements – have you got anything?

Often times when measuring metalworking fluid and emulsions with a traditional analog refractometer, either the resolution is not fine enough or the shadow line is too fuzzy. The best solution for metalworking fluids and emulsions is the MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer. The Palm Abbe refractometer has a Brix scale from 0 to 56 Brix, which is way more range than you need, but the precision is +/- 0.1 Brix. The Palm Abbe is a great instrument for measuring emulsions that are too fuzzy to read on a traditional analog refractometer. The Palm Abbe refractometer can also be programmed with the correction factor for your fluid so that you can read the concentration directly without the need for manual conversions.

Category: Metalworking

I have a customer who has a PA 201 Palm Unit & is using one of our metalworking coolants that has a 3.11 Brix multiplier. He wants to have it calibrated with the Brix multiplier factored in, so that his technicians will read the true concentration as having to use a multiplier. Can this be done and if so, where does it need to be sent? What is the cost for this upgrade? What other information is needed prior to shipment back to MISCO?

We can program any multiplier or factor for a metalworking fluid into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer so that you can directly read the concentration of a metalworking coolant or fluid. This can be done at the time of order or the refractometer can be returned to us for reprogramming.

Other Food & Beverage (10)

Can your digital refractometer be used to determine balling (sugars) in distillers mash? The standard has been to use a balling hydrometer. Also would there be one to determine alcohol in the fermenting mash? The max is around 9% by volume.

Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring the sugar content of mash for beer makers. You can use either the Brix scale or the balling scale for this. Once fermentation begins a refractometer cannot be used to “directly’ measure either the sugar content or the ethanol content since they will interfere with each other. However, there are some indirect methods using the Brix scale to monitor fermentation.

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

Hi, I just bought the Palm Abbe refractometer with 5 scales from you. I have tried it at our office but I cannot get it come to the right results. We are only going to measure total sugar content and alcohol in wines (finished wines). I have calibrated it with distilled water and it seems to measure water to 0.0 every time which is ok. As soon as i measure alcohol in red wine it always shows too high digits – up to 18-20% ABV and the sugar is always too high. What may the problem be in this case?

The problem is that you cannot directly measure the alcohol content in finished wine using a refractometer. Once fermentation begins ethanol and the residual sugar interfere with each other and prevent an accurate reading of either sugar content or alcohol content. The best method for determining the alcohol content in the wine is distillation. There are also some good methods of estimating alcohol and sugar content during fermentation and later in the finished wine. For more information, download a copy of our free guide, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

We are a small winery on premise in Michigan and we make our wines from Must and kits only, we don’t crush the grapes. Is there a refractometer you could recommend for our purposes which could tell us actual specific gravity and Actual Alcohol readings of finished wine?

A refractometer is very useful at nearly all stages of wine production. It can be used to help assess the ripeness of grapes before harvest, predict alcohol content from the must, measure the sugar content of must, monitor the fermentation process, and determine the alcohol by volume (ABV) of the finished wine. A refractometer with the Brix scale is the best method of determining the sugar concentration of the grapes and must. Scales are available that can predict the alcohol content of the finished wine based on must measurements. Once fermentation begins ethanol will interfere with sugar readings and you will not be able to take direct readings of either alcohol content or sugar content, without using special techniques. Once the wine is finished, the same refractometer, with an ethanol scale, can be used to measure the distillate of the wine to accurately determine alcohol content.
Click the following link to download a copy of our technical bulletin on “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

I am interested in the VIN06 refractometer for the determination of alcohol in fortified wines. What is the process for determining the alcohol – it appears you have to distil the wine before measuring it with the refractometer. How would I do this?

You cannot directly measure the alcohol content in a finished wine with a refractometer. However, you can distil the wine and then use the alcohol scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to measure the ethanol content of the distillate. More information can be found in our technical bulletin  “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

We are looking for a Quantitative Determination of Sucralose, in order to control the dosing accurately. Please tell me is there any solution.

Thank you for your question. The best method of measuring Sucralose and Splenda is with the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Scales are available for this refractometer to accurately measure the concentration of both Sucralose (0 to 28% w/w) and Splenda (0 to 45 % w/w) with a resolution of 0.1%.

Product : Splenda-Sucralose Digital Refractometer

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

We are a California manufacturer of a carbonated low-alcohol beverage and are looking for a relatively low-cost way to test samples to make sure alcohol is below 0.5%. Would your refractometer work for this?

Unless your beverage is just ethanol and water, a refractometer will not be able to directly measure the alcohol content. This is because sugars in the solution will conflict with a reading of alcohol and vice a versa. Probably the best way to test this is by distilling the beverage and measuring the distillate with a Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with an ethanol scale.

We use your Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer for making sorbet, and love it! But we’re confused as to how it operates on solutions that contain sugar and alcohol in combination: the readings don’t seem to make sense. Is there a way to compensate for this?

Unfortunately it is not possible to measure sugar contents and alcohol content in combination in a sorbet or other solution using a refractometer. Refractometers are very good at measuring binary solutions (two-part), such as water and sugar, where water is a constant and sugar is a variable. However, a refractometer is not very good for measuring multi-component solutions such as water, sugar, and alcohol. When there are several different components in a solution, such as water, sugar, and alcohol, it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index. So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts changed. A refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. So, depending on the concentrations of the other constituents, it may be difficult to get an accurate reading of any one component.

How accurate is your refractometer when alcohol is present? Can I measure R.S. [residual sugar] in wine? thanks

Alcohol and sugar interferes with each other when measuring finished wine with a refractometer. You cannot measure the alcohol content in a finished wine directly using a refractometer, nor can you directly measure the residual sugar content. There are however, a couple of tricks that you can use to determine alcohol content and residual sugar content using a refractometer. These methods and more are discussed in detail in our technical bulletin, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

Pharmaceuticals (2)

I am looking at ordering a Palm Abbe Digital Refractometer to use to test for drug diversion in our hospital. Which of the three models would you recommend? I would like to use it to test mainly for Fentanyl, Morphine, Meperidine & midazolam. Thank you.

A refractometer has become an essential tool in the fight to prevent the theft or diversion of injectable drugs. The Palm Abbe PA202 is probably the best choice for testing injectable narcotics. It has both Brix and refractive index scales against which drugs may be standardized. A refractometer can be used in the central pharmacy, satellite pharmacies, surgical units, and nursing units. They are equally useful to pharmacists, nursing supervisors and security personnel or drug diversion investigators. Letting hospital staff members know that drugs are under surveillance, and that they will be tested when returned, will also have preventative effect.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

I am looking for a chart of what the medication should show up as on the brix scale. I want to use the Palm abbe digital refractometer mostly for Fentanyl, midazolam, morphine pf, ketamine, morphine, meperidine, sufentanil, and astramorph. If you know of where I can find this information that would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you for your question. There is no standard chart of Brix or refractive index value of injectable narcotics as measured by refractometer. The reason is that there are small variations between lots and also between manufacturers. The best method is to characterize each of the fluids that you commonly use yourself to create a uniform control standard (reference measurements). All future measurements of the reference drugs can then be compared to your control standards.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

Refractometer Applications (62)

Please advise if you have a meter that can measure glycol concentration in water? It will be used in a food processing industry.

We have two different types of refractometers that you can use to measure glycol concentration in water. The first is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol & Battery Tester. It is a traditional analog refractometer with scales for measuring both ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) freeze points. For more accuracy, the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be equipped with a number of scales for reading ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG). You may select from scales for measuring freeze point, concentration by weight or volume, specific gravity, density, and even boiling point. The Palm Abbe PA203X digital refractometer can be equipped with up to five different scales.

Hello, I am looking for a handheld portable device to measure the % mass ethylene glycol in a glycol / water solution. Thanks.

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales for measuring the percent by weight or percent by volume of ethylene glycol (EG) in an ethylene glycol (EG) / water solution. Just use the filters in the digital handheld refractometer section of the MISCO website to find the refractometer that is right for you. If you don’t see what you need, please contact MISCO customer service and we will create a custom refractometer to your specifications.

 

I need a refractometer to check Glycerin, and possibly propylene glycol. What handheld palm abbe would be best for me? The PA202 or PA203 Will the PA202 measure glycol? Does the pa203 come with pre-installed scales or custom scales for each use? My application is for antifreeze. Fahrenheit readings please. Please advise.

With the right combination of scales, either the Palm Abbe PA202x or PA203 digital refractometer will handle the job of measuring glycerin and propylene glycol antifreeze solutions. Scales are available to read nearly any physical property of glycerin and propylene glycol, including scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more.

Want to purchase an inline refractometer for the measurement of concentration of glucose fructose and fructose, which will give 4-20mA output which can be interfaced to a card.

One of our Inline Process Refractometers would be ideal for measuring the concentration of glucose and fructose in a process fluid. The VIP refractometer has a 4 to 20 mA output so it will be no problem interfacing with a card, PLC, or other controller.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

Do you have any refractometer that can tell whether an unknown liquid is glycol or glycerin?

No, unfortunately a refractometer cannot tell the difference between glycol and glycerin. Although we do have refractometers with both glycol and glycerin scales, you must know which fluid you are testing and test it on the correct scale to get an accurate measurement of concentration or freeze point.

I have some questions about your 7084VP+ MISCO glycol and battery tester. How would I use this refractometer to verify a 30% glycol solution in one of our systems since the unit it reads are in degrees Fahrenheit?

You have two choices. First, ask your glycol supplier for a chart of glycol concentration to freeze point. They will be happy to supply you with one. Then measure the freeze point of the fluid with the 7084VP+ and look up the percent concentration corresponding to your freeze point measurement.

Can your digital refractometer be used to determine balling (sugars) in distillers mash? The standard has been to use a balling hydrometer. Also would there be one to determine alcohol in the fermenting mash? The max is around 9% by volume.

Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring the sugar content of mash for beer makers. You can use either the Brix scale or the balling scale for this. Once fermentation begins a refractometer cannot be used to “directly’ measure either the sugar content or the ethanol content since they will interfere with each other. However, there are some indirect methods using the Brix scale to monitor fermentation.

Hello, I am looking to buy a palm abbe for the purpose of testing glycerine based liquids which model would you recommend?

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with a glycerin concentration or freezepoint scale is the simplest and most accurate means of testing glycerin/water solutions. Scales are available for measuring glycerin percent by weight or percent by volume, freeze point, density, or specific gravity.

Category: Fire Protection

Looking for a refractometer to test metalworking fluids for grinding at concentrations from 0.5 to 4%, current analog scale 0 – 15% is too large and we cannot see concentration movements – have you got anything?

Often times when measuring metalworking fluid and emulsions with a traditional analog refractometer, either the resolution is not fine enough or the shadow line is too fuzzy. The best solution for metalworking fluids and emulsions is the MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer. The Palm Abbe refractometer has a Brix scale from 0 to 56 Brix, which is way more range than you need, but the precision is +/- 0.1 Brix. The Palm Abbe is a great instrument for measuring emulsions that are too fuzzy to read on a traditional analog refractometer. The Palm Abbe refractometer can also be programmed with the correction factor for your fluid so that you can read the concentration directly without the need for manual conversions.

Category: Metalworking

I am interested in purchasing a digital refractometer to test colostrum. I recently saw one of your models at a meeting but they didn’t tell us what model.

As you know colostrum quality is essential to calf health and IgG concentration is a direct indication of colostrum quality. It is no secret that the failure of passive transfer of IgG results in increased disease and death. Numerous studies point to the use of a refractometer as an excellent means of evaluating colostrum quality. The MISCO Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer is the best instrument to use for measuring bovine colostrum. It is generally accepted that a Brix reading of 22 or above is an indication that the colostrum quality is good.

Can the Palm refractometer be used to check Trieythelene Glycol?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure several triethylene glycol (TEG) physical properties including, percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

Hi, I’m interested in purchasing a refractometer, but I am not sure which type is suited to my needs. I plan to use it in order to verify concentrations of Urea concentration. The temperature of the solution will be 35 degrees Celsius, and I want to use high concentrations, 6M-8M Urea. Can you please advise as to which device is best suited to my needs?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring urea concentration. There are scales to read Molarity 0.0 to 8.6, as well as scales for percent by weight, specific gravity, density, freeze point (Celsius and Fahrenheit), and parts per thousand. The refractometer is automatically temperature corrected for temperatures between 10 to 45 °C (50 to 113 °F). If you can’t decide which urea scale that you need, that’s ok; you can select any five scales to be programmed into a Palm Abbe PA203x. Please give us a call, customer service will be happy to help you select the scales that you need.

Category: Chemicals

What is the difference between the traditional analog Brix refractometer and the electronic digital handheld for Glycol testing? What are the benefits to having one over the other?

This is a good question. Brix is a measure of sucrose content in a sucrose water solution. There is not a direct linear relationship between Brix and glycol concentration. However, there may be a conversion chart available from your glycol supplier or you can make your own (we do not have conversion charts). Our analog Brix refractometer has a precision of +/- 0.2% Brix. The analog refractometer scale is subjective, meaning that two or more people looking at the scale are likely to report different readings depending how they view the scale. You also need to bring the glycol near your face to take a reading. Brix refractometers are temperature compensated for sucrose not glycol. Lastly, since you need to use a conversion table to manually calculate glycol freeze point, you introduce the possibility of making an error. A Palm Abbe digital refractometer with a scale for glycol would be a much better choice. First, the reading is digital which removes subjectivity from the measurement. Second, you can read directly in the unit of measure you desire, concentration or freeze point. This eliminates conversion errors. Since you place your sample in a well, you do not need to bring the refractometer near your face to read it. Also, a digital refractometer with a glycol scale will have temperature compensation specific to glycol. Lastly, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer has at least twice the accuracy of an analog Brix refractometer.

Which hand-held digital refractometer would be best for checking specific gravity of industrial battery electrolyte (sulfuric acid and water)? Need a minimum range of 1.100 to 1.350.

The Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer is the best choice for measuring the specific gravity sulfuric acid based battery electrolyte. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for this refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501 so it should more than cover your range of interest.

We would like to know about a refractometer that can be used for measuring sugar, glucose and fructose. Ours is an inline application.

Nearly any one of our Inline Process Refractometer is ideal for measuring the concentration of sugar, glucose, and fructose in a fluid. Virtually any scale that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can also be programmed into the VIP inline refractometer. We have scales available for sugar, glucose, and fructose, and well as many other types of sugar.

We are specifically wanting to measure both Engine Coolant and Windshield Washer Fluid for % concentration and Freeze point. The Coolant is water and Propylene Glycol mixed seeking % Glycol in the mixture. The Windshield Washer fluid is a Methanol and Water mix where they want to know % Methanol. These define freeze point.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is the ideal way to measure automotive fluids. The refractometer can be programmed with scales for ethylene glycol (EG) & propylene glycol (PG) engine coolants, methanol for windshield washer fluid, and even brake fluid moisture content. You can select from refractometer scales that display freeze point or concentration for any of these fluids. Use the filters on the Product/Digital Handheld page to select a refractometer with the scales that you need. If you cannot find a refractometer that fits your needs, try the Build-Your-Own Refractometer section or call MISCO customer service. We will be happy to custom program a refractometer for you with the exact scales you need.

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

We required refractometer or any other suitable equipment to measure the sucrose in honey with accuracy. Is there any authorized dealer for this product in India? Or, who should we contact to purchase the same?

If you contact customer service, they will be happy to give you the name of our distributor in India. Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content. The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.

Category: Honey

Hi, will your hand held (both glycerin/ glycol) read below zero. In Utah we are required to provide -0 readings. Please let me know.

The glycerin scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the freeze point of glycerin from +32 to -46 °F. It can read glycerin concentration from 0 to 100%. The propylene glycol scale for this refractometer can measure propylene glycol freeze point from +32 to -60 °F. It can also read propylene glycol concentration from 0 to 100%.

I have one of your Maple Syrup Palm Abbe refractometers and was wondering if it is possible to add an additional scale for reading invert sugars by percent. And if so how much would it cost for you to add the scale to my device?

Thank you for purchasing the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring maple syrup. You can add additional measurement scales to a Palm Abbe refractometer depending on the base Palm Abbe model that you have. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA201 can only contain a single scale. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA202 can contain up to two scales. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA203 can contain up to five scales. If you send your Palm Abbe refractometer back to us we can reprogram it for a fee. Reprogramming charges apply to scale changes and scale additions. We have several scales for invert sugar.

Categories: Maple Syrup, Sugars

I was searching for a high quality digital refractometer when came across your company website. Basically the refractometer will be used to check the water to foam ratio of a fire fighters water tank (fire engine). I would appreciate if you suggest a suitable model with high precision and I would like to obtain the price and delivery time.

Our Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer is ideal for measuring firefighting foam concentration. The Palm Abbe PA202 has a refractive index scale with a precision of +/-0.0001 nD20 (refractive index). For more information, please search our site for PA202.

Category: Fire Protection

How do you know when to change DOT brake fluid?

It is generally believed that a moisture content of less than 2% is safe for most driving conditions in most parts of the U.S. Conventional wisdom says that a moisture content of 2 to 3% is marginal and that it should absolutely be changed at 3%. You should consult your vehicles owner’s manual or vehicle manufacturer for their recommendations with respect to your specific car. A car generally absorbs about 1% moisture per year of service life. Many motor vehicle companies recommend changing brake fluid every 12-months, others recommend changing every 24-months. The amount of moisture that brake fluid absorbs depends on a number of factors including the type of fluid, humidity, type of brake hoses, condition of the seals and mileage.

Very interested, yet ignorant about this technology. I need reliability in testing % NaCl in water softening applications as well as concentrations of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sodium sulfite. Do I need multiple instruments? Can I get the meter to read in ppm of sodium sulfite? Can the meter(s) read in % saturation of NaCl? I am used to reading hydrometers for all but sodium sulfite, can the instruments give the same read out in % acid or caustic? I really do not understand the BRIX scale and how that will look when all I want is the strength of acid or % saturation of NaCl. Thanks,

There are many scales available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. In general, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) fluids, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) and water. Where the sodium chloride is the variable and water is the constant. For these types of binary fluids, the resolution (detection threshold) is typically in parts per thousand (ppt). Measurements of concentrations in the parts per million rage is not possible with a handheld refractometer.

As long as you can accept measurements in the parts per thousand, percent saturation, or concentration, then a refractometer would be useful for you. We have scales available for directly measuring sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrochloric acid (HCL), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), provided that your fluid is just one of those chemicals and water. If there are more than two parts to the solution, a refractometer could not discriminate which part was causing a change in the overall refractive index.

The Brix scale is a measure of the percent of sucrose in a sucrose/water solution. This scale would not be of any use to you unless you have a conversion table.

Check out our Build Your Own Page and put together scales that make sense for your full application.

Category: Chemicals

I need to know the percent volume of my glycol?

.There are two methods to determine the percent concentration of glycol in a system. If using the MISCO Glycol & Battery Tester (7084VP or 7064VP), take a reading of the glycol on the freeze point scale and then cross reference the freeze point reading to the percent volume column on a physical property chart, available from your glycol supplier. If using one the MISCO Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer, there are several scales available which directly display the concentration by volume of a glycol solution.

I need to detect Ethylene Glycol contamination in rain water as it flows through a pipe, in order to detect leakage from a heat-transfer system. I don’t need a measurement, simply a yes or no signal. Is this something you can supply?

The best method to detect low levels of ethylene glycol contamination in rain water is with the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Equipped with one of several ethylene glycol scales the Palm Abbe refractometer can detect ethylene glycol to +/-0.1%. Refractometer scales are available for measuring ethylene glycol percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point.

Products

Ethylene Glycol Refractometer – Ethylene Glycol Scales -Concentration & Freeze Point °C – MISCO Digital Refractometer

Ethylene Glycol Refractometer – Ethylene Glycol Scales – Concentration & Freeze Point °F-MISCO Digital Refractometer

Do you know of a refractometer that measures the shelf-life of DEF? I’m not as concerned about our contamination as I am the risk. I’ve heard that comes from it sitting idle in a tank for too long.

A Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) refractometer cannot tell you the quality or shelf-life of the DEF, it can only provide you a measure of urea concentration. However, a concentration measurement can tell you if the DEF is over or under concentrated, and may indicate tampering. The MISCO DEF201 and DEF202 digital handheld refractometers can measure the concentration of urea in DEF but this is a measure of concentration only.

I need a refractometer to check Glycerin, and possibly propylene glycol. What handheld palm abbe would be best for me? The PA202 or PA203 Will the PA202 measure glycol? Does the pa203 come with pre-installed scales or custom scales for each use? My application is for antifreeze. Fahrenheit readings please. Please advise.

With the right combination of scales, either the Palm Abbe PA202x or PA203 digital refractometer will handle the job of measuring glycerin and propylene glycol antifreeze solutions. Scales are available to read nearly any physical property of glycerin and propylene glycol, including scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more.  You can combine your own scale choices with our build your own tool, or consider the below products.

Glycerin-Propylene Glycol Refractomete- Glycerine- Propylene Glycol Scales-Percent Volume – Freeze Point °C- MISCO Digital Refractometer

Glycerine-Propylene Glycol Refractometer – Glycerine & Propylene Glycol Scales – Percent Volume – Freeze Point °F – MISCO Digital Refractometer

I have a model 10440 Refractometer. My question is what reading should i get for lead-acid batteries at full charge? I currently am reading from 16 to 26 on two different batteries.

The MISCO 10440VP is a great refractometer for testing the concentration of metalworking fluids but it is the wrong instrument for measuring state of charge of lead-acid batteries.

A better choice would be either the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester, a handheld traditional analog refractometer with a scale for reading the specific gravity of battery electrolyte, or, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sulfuric acid concentration.

There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, and percent by weight. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for the MISCO 7084VP+ is 1.00 to 1.400 and the range for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501. The Palm Abbe is an order of magnitude more accurate than the 7084VP+.

I am looking at ordering a Palm Abbe Digital Refractometer to use to test for drug diversion in our hospital. Which of the three models would you recommend? I would like to use it to test mainly for Fentanyl, Morphine, Meperidine & midazolam. Thank you.

A refractometer has become an essential tool in the fight to prevent the theft or diversion of injectable drugs. The Palm Abbe PA202 is probably the best choice for testing injectable narcotics. It has both Brix and refractive index scales against which drugs may be standardized. A refractometer can be used in the central pharmacy, satellite pharmacies, surgical units, and nursing units. They are equally useful to pharmacists, nursing supervisors and security personnel or drug diversion investigators. Letting hospital staff members know that drugs are under surveillance, and that they will be tested when returned, will also have preventative effect.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

I am interested in the refractometer. We use triethylene glycol for gas dehydration and I would like to know if this meter will tell us the % water in the glycol. We also use amine Ucarsol 302. The amine mix is 50% Ucarsol and 50% deionized water, will the refractometer check this mix?

Triethylene glycol (TEG) scales are available for the MISO Palm Abbe digital refractometer. You can select scales that measure percent by weight, percent by volume, freeze point, specific gravity, density, and boiling point. We also have a scales available for amines like, Diethanolomine (DEA), Diglycolamine (DGA), and Monoethanolomine (MEA). We don’t have a scale available for amine Ucarsol 302 but we would be happy to work with you to create one.

Category: Gas Treatment

I am wanting to find out if you have a handheld meter that can measure: TEG EG DEG PG MEA DEA DGA Any assistance that you can provide would be greatly appreciated.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine). Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

I am looking for an refractometer to measure & control concentration of salt brine preparation for road deicing (at 23.3 %). Is your refractometer applicable to this service?

We have two options for your brine maker. First, is the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sodium chloride (NaCl). Scales are available for salt concentration as percent by weight, parts per thousand (ppt), or percent (%) saturation. There are also scales available for testing the freeze point of your brine solution. We also have scales available for measuring calcium chloride, urea, and magnesium chloride as well. The Palm Abbe can have up to five different scales so one refractometer can measure the concentration of all your deicing fluids. The second option, would be installing an inline refractometer on your brinemaker to monitor salt brine concentration in real-time. A 4 to 20 mA on the inline can be wired to a PLC and can open or close valves to draw off salt brine when it is at the proper concentration. The inline unit can measure sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride.

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salomete-; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine-Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °C – MISCO Digital Refractometer

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer- Sodium Chloride Salt Brine- Percent Saturation- Freeze Point in °F -MISCO Digital Refractometer

Need a refractometer that will read glycerin based antifreeze for fire suppression. Firefight GL is the product we use. Thanks.

You can test both glycerin concentration and freeze point with the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Model PA202-16-18 has scales for glycerin concentration by volume and glycerin freeze point in degrees Fahrenheit. Other models have scales for both glycerin and propylene glycol. Trying searching for “glycerin” in the Palm Abbe product area to find the refractometer with the scales that you need.

Products

Glycerine- Propylene Glycol Refractometer- Glycerine-; Propylene Glycol Scale-Percent Volume-Freeze Point °C– Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Propylene Glycol Refractometer Glycerine Propylene Glycol Scales  Percent Volume  Freeze Point °F  Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Refractometer ; Glycerine Scales Concentration Freeze Point °C – Digital Refractometer

Glycerine Refractometer Glycerine Scales  Concentration Freeze Point °F-Digital Refractometer

Category: Fire Protection

I am looking for a chart of what the medication should show up as on the brix scale. I want to use the Palm abbe digital refractometer mostly for Fentanyl, midazolam, morphine pf, ketamine, morphine, meperidine, sufentanil, and astramorph. If you know of where I can find this information that would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you for your question. There is no standard chart of Brix or refractive index value of injectable narcotics as measured by refractometer. The reason is that there are small variations between lots and also between manufacturers. The best method is to characterize each of the fluids that you commonly use yourself to create a uniform control standard (reference measurements). All future measurements of the reference drugs can then be compared to your control standards.

Category: Pharmaceuticals

Hi, I just bought the Palm Abbe refractometer with 5 scales from you. I have tried it at our office but I cannot get it come to the right results. We are only going to measure total sugar content and alcohol in wines (finished wines). I have calibrated it with distilled water and it seems to measure water to 0.0 every time which is ok. As soon as i measure alcohol in red wine it always shows too high digits – up to 18-20% ABV and the sugar is always too high. What may the problem be in this case?

The problem is that you cannot directly measure the alcohol content in finished wine using a refractometer. Once fermentation begins ethanol and the residual sugar interfere with each other and prevent an accurate reading of either sugar content or alcohol content. The best method for determining the alcohol content in the wine is distillation. There are also some good methods of estimating alcohol and sugar content during fermentation and later in the finished wine. For more information, download a copy of our free guide, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

Do you make a refractometer that can measure the concentration of rust preventative in water? The product we are testing for is known as RP-27.

The answer to your question is, generally yes. Refractometers are very good at measuring water soluble solutions, like rust preventatives. However, it depends on how soluble the rust preventative is and the detection limit or resolution that you require. Providing that the rust preventative is water soluble and providing that you are happy with a resolution between 0.1 to 0.2%, then a refractometer work for you.

Obviously we do not have a scale for every possible solution and it is a good bet that we do not have a direct reading scale for your rust preventative. In situations like this, we usually recommend a Brix refractometer like our 10430VP or our Palm Abbe PA201. Either will work. You will either need to obtain a Brix conversion factor from the solution supplier, or you will need to make your own.

To make your own conversion, you will need to carefully mix a couple known solutions that bracket your target concentration. Measure the known mixtures with the refractometer and chart the concentration vs. Brix reading on a piece of graph paper. Be sure to add a point for water which is 0.0 Brix. Draw a line through your points, or as close to all the points as possible. When measuring an unknown concentration in the future, just use the chart you created to convert Brix readings to the concentration of your fluid. Instruction for creating charts are available in the refractometer instruction manual.

Product: Brix Refractometer – Brix Scale – 0 to 56 Brix – MISCO PA201

We are a small winery on premise in Michigan and we make our wines from Must and kits only, we don’t crush the grapes. Is there a refractometer you could recommend for our purposes which could tell us actual specific gravity and Actual Alcohol readings of finished wine?

A refractometer is very useful at nearly all stages of wine production. It can be used to help assess the ripeness of grapes before harvest, predict alcohol content from the must, measure the sugar content of must, monitor the fermentation process, and determine the alcohol by volume (ABV) of the finished wine. A refractometer with the Brix scale is the best method of determining the sugar concentration of the grapes and must. Scales are available that can predict the alcohol content of the finished wine based on must measurements. Once fermentation begins ethanol will interfere with sugar readings and you will not be able to take direct readings of either alcohol content or sugar content, without using special techniques. Once the wine is finished, the same refractometer, with an ethanol scale, can be used to measure the distillate of the wine to accurately determine alcohol content.
Click the following link to download a copy of our technical bulletin on “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

Could I use a Refractometer to measure the density of flooded batteries. Density is 1.200-1.260?

We have two great tools for measuring the density of battery electrolyte in flooded batteries. The first is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester. The 7084VP+ is a traditional analog refractometer with a scale for the specific gravity of sulfuric acid from 1.000 to 1.400. There are also a number of scales available for the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure sulfuric acid density, specific gravity, concentration (% by weight) well beyond your range of interest.

Products:
Glycol and Battery Tester ; Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol,  ; Battery Acid Scales  ; Freeze Point °C  Specific Gravity ; MISCO 7064VP+ Refractometer

Glycol and Battery Tester – Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Battery Acid Scales   Freeze Point °F Specific Gravity  MISCO 7084VP+ Refractometer

I am interested in the VIN06 refractometer for the determination of alcohol in fortified wines. What is the process for determining the alcohol – it appears you have to distil the wine before measuring it with the refractometer. How would I do this?

You cannot directly measure the alcohol content in a finished wine with a refractometer. However, you can distil the wine and then use the alcohol scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to measure the ethanol content of the distillate. More information can be found in our technical bulletin  “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

We are looking for a Quantitative Determination of Sucralose, in order to control the dosing accurately. Please tell me is there any solution.

Thank you for your question. The best method of measuring Sucralose and Splenda is with the Palm Abbe digital refractometer. Scales are available for this refractometer to accurately measure the concentration of both Sucralose (0 to 28% w/w) and Splenda (0 to 45 % w/w) with a resolution of 0.1%.

Product : Splenda-Sucralose Digital Refractometer

I would like to obtain some additional information regarding your PALM ABBE PA202X-011-014 ethylene glycol refractometer. Our enquiry is related to the use of the refractometer for measuring runoff and surface waters for ethylene glycol. Specific questions are:

1. Units of measure. Does the instrument have the capability of reporting measurements in mg/L?

mg/L is a tough number to display on the refractometer. Refractometers typically measure in the parts per thousand range. Mg/L is parts per million. This is well beyond the detection threshold of most handheld refractometers.

2. What is the range (lower detection limit and upper limit) of detection of the instrument in mg/L?

0 to 1,000,000 mg/L Theoretical.

3. If there is an upper range, is there a procedure specified for sample dilution?

Upper range would be 100% EG. No dilution would be necessary.

4. Are there any properties of the matrix (water) that may interfere with the analyses (e.g., suspended solids, dissolved solids, pH)?

Dissolved solids are additive to refractive index. Any dissolved solids besides EG would cause an error in the reading. Most suspended solids should have no effect on the readings.

5. What is the precision and accuracy of the measurements (+/- in terms of mg/L)? Does the accuracy/precision vary according to sample concentration?

The average full scale precision would be approximately +/- 1.500 mg/L.  and Yes. It is approximately +/- 1.395 at the bottom of the scale and +/- 3.966 at 100% EG.

We are interested in determining the level of ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol in the field and wonder if the PA203 is suitable to do that.

Yes, scales are available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring both ethylene glycol (EG) and triethylene glycol (TEG). TEG scales are available for measuring percent by volume, percent by weight, freeze point, specific gravity (D20/20), and density. The same scales are available for ethylene glycol plus boiling point and percent water content. You can mix and match any five of these scales in the Palm Abbe PA203.

Can you use a refractometer to measure DEF Quantity? Is it acceptable practice to add water to adjust over-concentrated samples?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer (DEF201 or DEF202) can be used to very accurately measure urea concentration in DEF to +/-0.1%. DEF is a composition of ultra-pure urea and demineralized water. ISO standards call for DEF to be 32.5% (+/-0.8%). If your DEF is over-concentrated, due to evaporation, you can add demineralized water to return the measurement to 32.5%. However, you should NEVER add tap water or well water to a DEF. Doing so can cause irreparable damage to your SCR components.

A vendor gave me your website to try and locate a meter that could tell me the percentage of Diethanolamine contained in a deionized water solution. We typically run approximately 25-30% DEA solution, and add deionized water or diethanolamine (DEA) to maintain this concentration. Do you provide a hand-held instrument that could analyze this for us?

Thanks for your question. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed with scales to read Diethanolamine (DEA) from 0 to 100 percent by weight. Just place a few drops of Diethanolamine (DEA) on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to get an instant reading of concentration.

 Hello, I am looking for a perfect personal device for testing honey quality. I always use honey for medication. Unfortunately, I cannot note the difference between the good or bad honey. Some honey products involve high percentage of sugar and this really effects the quality of honey. So, Please let me know what the good device for testing honey.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for testing either the moisture content or total solids content of honey. There are three base honey models to choose from. Each of the three honey refractometers has different scale combinations. For more information on honey refractometers, search for honey or navigate to the Digital Handheld category and use the filters to view the selection of honey refractometers. A honey technical bulleting is available from MISCO customer service or from any of the honey refractometer pages.

Category: Honey

What is the difference between freezepoint and burst point when testing with a refractometer.

Freezepoint is the point that the first ice crystals form in the absence of supercooling. Burst point is the point that the solution freezes solid and bursts the vessel containing it. The burst point is usually 30-50 degrees colder than the freezepoint. Our Glycol & Battery Tester reads the freezepoint of both ethylene and propylene glycol solutions. If you need to know the burst point, take a reading on the Glycol & Battery Tester and use a chart (available from your antifreeze supplier) to cross-reference freezepoint to burst point or percent concentration.

If the sugar you wish to measure is sucrose, that’s an easy question to answer. The PA201 Palm Abbe digital refractometer is a single scale refractometer that displays readings on the Brix scale from 0 to 56 %. Brix is the equivalent of percent sucrose by weight. If you are measuring another sugar, such as fructose, maltose, dextrose, invert sugar, or different corn syrup blends, including high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), there is a scale available that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to meet your needs.

Suggested Base Product: Brix Refractometer – MISCO PA201

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

When using this to test % PG in water, is it possible to get a false positive at low levels (e.g., 0.1, 0.2)? Does the turbidity of the sample have any effect?

The uncertainty of the Palm Abbe digital refractometer PA203X with a propylene glycol (PG) scale is +/-0.1%. So, if you are testing pure water there is always the possibility of receiving a reading of either -0.1% or +0.1% concentration. To minimize the possibility of an erroneous reading, you can take multiple readings and average them together. Generally, turbidity caused by suspended solids will have little effect on refractive index measurement.

I have a customer who has a PA 201 Palm Unit & is using one of our metalworking coolants that has a 3.11 Brix multiplier. He wants to have it calibrated with the Brix multiplier factored in, so that his technicians will read the true concentration as having to use a multiplier. Can this be done and if so, where does it need to be sent? What is the cost for this upgrade? What other information is needed prior to shipment back to MISCO?

We can program any multiplier or factor for a metalworking fluid into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer so that you can directly read the concentration of a metalworking coolant or fluid. This can be done at the time of order or the refractometer can be returned to us for reprogramming.

Do you have a digital model for reading the specific gravity of lead acid battery?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer represents the perfect method for measuring the concentration or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4), or state of charge, in a lead-acid battery. There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, percent by weight. Try our Build-Your-Own section. You can choose up to 5 custom scales!

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

Our Palm Abbe digital honey refractometer measures percent moisture, or total solids content, of honey. Sucrose is just one of the solids that make up the total solids content of honey. In fact there is only about 1 to 1.5% sucrose in honey. Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, other sugars, and ash make up the majority of the solids content.

The specific concentration of solids in any particular batch of honey depends, to a large extent, on the flowers available to the bees. Many people make the same mistake and try to test honey with a Brix refractometer which is designed for sucrose measurement. But since the sucrose level in honey is so low, a Brix reading can be off by 3% or more compared to an actual honey refractometer. For the full scoop, download a copy of our technical bulletin, “From Hive to Table; MISCO Digital Honey Refractometer Provides a Sweet Solution for Measuring Honey Moisture Content.”

Category: Honey

We are a California manufacturer of a carbonated low-alcohol beverage and are looking for a relatively low-cost way to test samples to make sure alcohol is below 0.5%. Would your refractometer work for this?

Unless your beverage is just ethanol and water, a refractometer will not be able to directly measure the alcohol content. This is because sugars in the solution will conflict with a reading of alcohol and vice a versa. Probably the best way to test this is by distilling the beverage and measuring the distillate with a Palm Abbe digital refractometer equipped with an ethanol scale.

We use your Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer for making sorbet, and love it! But we’re confused as to how it operates on solutions that contain sugar and alcohol in combination: the readings don’t seem to make sense. Is there a way to compensate for this?

Unfortunately it is not possible to measure sugar contents and alcohol content in combination in a sorbet or other solution using a refractometer. Refractometers are very good at measuring binary solutions (two-part), such as water and sugar, where water is a constant and sugar is a variable. However, a refractometer is not very good for measuring multi-component solutions such as water, sugar, and alcohol. When there are several different components in a solution, such as water, sugar, and alcohol, it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index. So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts changed. A refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. So, depending on the concentrations of the other constituents, it may be difficult to get an accurate reading of any one component.

We have a pool with 18% salt (a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). Is there a digital device [refractometer] that can measure the % of salt in the water?

I have some concerns about your ability to measure percent salt in a multi-component mixture with a refractometer. You see, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) mixtures such as sodium chloride and water, where the refractive index value of water is a constant (static or known) and sodium chloride is the variable. However, when there are many different components in a solution, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index.

So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts has changed. Since a refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. Therefore it will be impossible to get a reading that is meaningful.

The Palm Abbe refractometer does have scales for binary solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), but cannot measure a mixture of all three.

Can you please kindly advise us if your company manufactures a refractometer with a range of 1.3330 – 1.3340 on the standard refractive index scale and/or 0 to 5 on the Brix Scale.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine).

Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

Please kindly furnish me with information and price on a refractometer for testing airport foam solutions for dealing with aircraft fires. The test we do presently is visual. We would like to upgrade, especially now that we have new Rescue and Fire Fighting Trucks that produce AFFF and FFFP foam solutions. We would like our inspectors to be using it to assess the foam solution concentration, quality and performance.

The best method for measuring AFFF and FFFP fire-fighting foam solutions is with the MISCO Palm Abbe PA202 digital refractometer. The PA202 has a scale for refractive index and a precision of +/- 0.0001 refractive index units, making it ideal for field testing firefighting foam.  Our best device for this is our Brix Refractometer – with Refractive Index measurement. 

Category: Fire Protection

I’m interested in testing calcium chloride (CaCl2) at a 30% concentration. This would be to verify identity of totes. Is this possible with a refractometer?

The MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer can be programmed to measure calcium chloride. In fact there are several calcium chloride scales that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe refractometer to measure calcium chloride percent by weight, grams/ 100 grams, ppt, density, specific gravity, and freeze point in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. All of the Calcium Chloride scales can measure the equivalent of 0 to 40% w/w, with the exception of the freeze point scales which measure to the maximum freeze point.

Categories: Chemicals, Deicing

I have a gas dehydration system which used TEG. Typical concentrations of Tri-ethylene Glycol (TEG) vary from 88% to 98%. Do you have a device that could measure the concentration of TEG to within +/- 0.5%. The typically impurities are 1) water ( 2-12%) and 2) oil (300- 1000 ppm). Thanks in advance.

No problem. Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer can measure the percent concentration of triethylene glycol (TEG) in your dehydration system from 0 to 100 percent (+/- 0.1%). You can choose a scale for TEG percent by concentration or TEG percent water. The oil contaminate should not be a problem because the refractometer only measures in the parts per thousand (ppt) range, not in parts per million.

 

I am looking for a small, digital refractometer to measure sugar, dextrose, and glucose up to 85 brix in the ice cream manufacturing business. Which is the right model for me?

Providing that the ratio of sugar, dextrose, and glucose in your solution is relatively constant, the Palm Abbe PA202 refractometer can measure Brix up to 85 Brix.

Might we suggest the PA-202 Brix Scale Handheld Refractometer to meet your needs.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

Can I check the glycol water ratio in ice rink using a refractometer? If yes, please tell me which type and also from where I can get your meter.

Propylene glycol is the heat transfer fluid of choice for most ice rinks. We have several propylene glycol refractometers to choose from depending on your preferences and budget. One is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol & Battery Tester. The 7084VP+ is a traditional analog refractometer with freeze point scales for both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The other alternative is one of several versions of the MISCO Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer.

Choose from propylene glycol models with scales for freeze point and concentration or other units of measure such as specific gravity, density, percent by weight or volume, and more. To view our complete line of propylene glycol refractometers, you can select the platform of interest and use the filters to limit the selection until you find what you need. Alternatively, you can use the Build Your Own Refractometer section to select the exact propylene glycol scales that you need.

 

How accurate is your refractometer when alcohol is present? Can I measure R.S. [residual sugar] in wine? thanks

Alcohol and sugar interferes with each other when measuring finished wine with a refractometer. You cannot measure the alcohol content in a finished wine directly using a refractometer, nor can you directly measure the residual sugar content. There are however, a couple of tricks that you can use to determine alcohol content and residual sugar content using a refractometer. These methods and more are discussed in detail in our technical bulletin, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

Salinity Testing (3)

What are all the different salt scales used for? I need to measure salinity content but don’t know what scale I need.

Chemically, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. There are several varieties of salts containing chlorides, acetates, fluorides, and sulfates. The most common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl) or regular table salt. Although we have a refractometer scale that will measure most common salts, we also have an extensive list of scales for sodium chloride. You may select from scales for measuring sodium chloride concentration in percent by weight, specific gravity, freeze point, parts per thousand (ppt), g/100g, density, percent saturation, and even Baume. The most common units of measure are percent by weight, percent saturation, and freeze point. The scale that is correct for you depend on what unit of measure you are most interested in. Multiple salt scales can be programed into the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer so you can just change between different units of measure as your needs change. MISCO also has scales available for the salinity of seawater.

Full question

We just purchased a MISCO digital salometer for measuring sodium chloride concentration. We have a process that needs to mix DI water with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) to 100% saturation. I am hoping that the meter I have bought is the correct version for this job?

The MISCO Digital Salometer is a refractometer that measures the percent saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl) salt in water. The refractometer will display the percent saturation of sodium chloride from 0 to 100% as well as display the freeze point of the solution in either Fahrenheit or Celsius (model dependent). A digital Salometer overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional analog Salometers. Traditional Salometers are cumbersome to use and time consuming. They are simply a glass or plastic hydrometer with a special scale that displays degrees SAL instead of specific gravity. In use, the traditional Salometer is floated in a graduated cylinder containing salt brine. The reading is taken at the point at which the surface of the fluid crosses the analog scale divisions; the temperature must then be read with a thermometer, followed by a manual temperature correction of the reading.

There is no method for field calibrating the apparatus; it is difficult to resolve the tiny scale divisions; it must be thoroughly cleaned and dried to prevent salt residue from influencing subsequent readings; and it is easily broken. The MISCO Digital Salometer is much easier to use and much more accurate. Simply place a couple of drops of sodium chloride solution on the measuring surface, close the evaporation cover, and press the button to initiate the readings. The percent saturation is displayed nearly instantly on the large LCD display.

Products

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,  Sodium Chloride Salt Brine , Percent Saturation , Freeze Point in °C

Sodium Chloride Salt Brine Refractometer Salometer,; Sodium Chloride Salt Brine,; Percent Saturation Freeze Point in °F

 

We have a pool with 18% salt (a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). Is there a digital device [refractometer] that can measure the % of salt in the water?

I have some concerns about your ability to measure percent salt in a multi-component mixture with a refractometer. You see, refractometers are very good at measuring binary (two-part) mixtures such as sodium chloride and water, where the refractive index value of water is a constant (static or known) and sodium chloride is the variable. However, when there are many different components in a solution, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index.

So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts has changed. Since a refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. Therefore it will be impossible to get a reading that is meaningful.

The Palm Abbe refractometer does have scales for binary solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), but cannot measure a mixture of all three.

Sugars (10)

Want to purchase an inline refractometer for the measurement of concentration of glucose fructose and fructose, which will give 4-20mA output which can be interfaced to a card.

One of our Inline Process Refractometers would be ideal for measuring the concentration of glucose and fructose in a process fluid. The VIP refractometer has a 4 to 20 mA output so it will be no problem interfacing with a card, PLC, or other controller.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

Can your digital refractometer be used to determine balling (sugars) in distillers mash? The standard has been to use a balling hydrometer. Also would there be one to determine alcohol in the fermenting mash? The max is around 9% by volume.

Our Palm Abbe digital refractometer is ideal for measuring the sugar content of mash for beer makers. You can use either the Brix scale or the balling scale for this. Once fermentation begins a refractometer cannot be used to “directly’ measure either the sugar content or the ethanol content since they will interfere with each other. However, there are some indirect methods using the Brix scale to monitor fermentation.

We would like to know about a refractometer that can be used for measuring sugar, glucose and fructose. Ours is an inline application.

Nearly any one of our Inline Process Refractometer is ideal for measuring the concentration of sugar, glucose, and fructose in a fluid. Virtually any scale that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer can also be programmed into the VIP inline refractometer. We have scales available for sugar, glucose, and fructose, and well as many other types of sugar.

I have one of your Maple Syrup Palm Abbe refractometers and was wondering if it is possible to add an additional scale for reading invert sugars by percent. And if so how much would it cost for you to add the scale to my device?

Thank you for purchasing the Palm Abbe digital refractometer for measuring maple syrup. You can add additional measurement scales to a Palm Abbe refractometer depending on the base Palm Abbe model that you have. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA201 can only contain a single scale. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA202 can contain up to two scales. All Palm Abbe refractometers that begin with model # PA203 can contain up to five scales. If you send your Palm Abbe refractometer back to us we can reprogram it for a fee. Reprogramming charges apply to scale changes and scale additions. We have several scales for invert sugar.

Categories: Maple Syrup, Sugars

Hi, I just bought the Palm Abbe refractometer with 5 scales from you. I have tried it at our office but I cannot get it come to the right results. We are only going to measure total sugar content and alcohol in wines (finished wines). I have calibrated it with distilled water and it seems to measure water to 0.0 every time which is ok. As soon as i measure alcohol in red wine it always shows too high digits – up to 18-20% ABV and the sugar is always too high. What may the problem be in this case?

The problem is that you cannot directly measure the alcohol content in finished wine using a refractometer. Once fermentation begins ethanol and the residual sugar interfere with each other and prevent an accurate reading of either sugar content or alcohol content. The best method for determining the alcohol content in the wine is distillation. There are also some good methods of estimating alcohol and sugar content during fermentation and later in the finished wine. For more information, download a copy of our free guide, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

If the sugar you wish to measure is sucrose, that’s an easy question to answer. The PA201 Palm Abbe digital refractometer is a single scale refractometer that displays readings on the Brix scale from 0 to 56 %. Brix is the equivalent of percent sucrose by weight. If you are measuring another sugar, such as fructose, maltose, dextrose, invert sugar, or different corn syrup blends, including high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), there is a scale available that can be programmed into the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to meet your needs.

Suggested Base Product: Brix Refractometer – MISCO PA201

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

We use your Palm Abbe PA201 digital refractometer for making sorbet, and love it! But we’re confused as to how it operates on solutions that contain sugar and alcohol in combination: the readings don’t seem to make sense. Is there a way to compensate for this?

Unfortunately it is not possible to measure sugar contents and alcohol content in combination in a sorbet or other solution using a refractometer. Refractometers are very good at measuring binary solutions (two-part), such as water and sugar, where water is a constant and sugar is a variable. However, a refractometer is not very good for measuring multi-component solutions such as water, sugar, and alcohol. When there are several different components in a solution, such as water, sugar, and alcohol, it is difficult to tell what the contribution is that each component makes to the total refractive index. So, if the refractive index changes, it is impossible to say, with any certainty, which of the component parts changed. A refractometer only measures the total refractive index of a solution and cannot selectively read the refractive index of one particular component. All water soluble fluids look the same to the refractometer. So, depending on the concentrations of the other constituents, it may be difficult to get an accurate reading of any one component.

Can you please kindly advise us if your company manufactures a refractometer with a range of 1.3330 – 1.3340 on the standard refractive index scale and/or 0 to 5 on the Brix Scale.

Scales are currently available for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure EG (ethylene glycol), PG (propylene glycol), TEG (triethylene glycol), DEG (diethylene glycol), MEA (Monoethanolomine), DEA (Diethanolomine), and DGA (Diglycolamine).

Please contact MISCO customer service for details on ordering, or see the Build-Your-Own section of our website.

I am looking for a small, digital refractometer to measure sugar, dextrose, and glucose up to 85 brix in the ice cream manufacturing business. Which is the right model for me?

Providing that the ratio of sugar, dextrose, and glucose in your solution is relatively constant, the Palm Abbe PA202 refractometer can measure Brix up to 85 Brix.

Might we suggest the PA-202 Brix Scale Handheld Refractometer to meet your needs.

Categories: Food & Beverage, Sugars

How accurate is your refractometer when alcohol is present? Can I measure R.S. [residual sugar] in wine? thanks

Alcohol and sugar interferes with each other when measuring finished wine with a refractometer. You cannot measure the alcohol content in a finished wine directly using a refractometer, nor can you directly measure the residual sugar content. There are however, a couple of tricks that you can use to determine alcohol content and residual sugar content using a refractometer. These methods and more are discussed in detail in our technical bulletin, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance (8)

Which hand-held digital refractometer would be best for checking specific gravity of industrial battery electrolyte (sulfuric acid and water)? Need a minimum range of 1.100 to 1.350.

The Palm Abbe digital handheld refractometer is the best choice for measuring the specific gravity sulfuric acid based battery electrolyte. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for this refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501 so it should more than cover your range of interest.

We are specifically wanting to measure both Engine Coolant and Windshield Washer Fluid for % concentration and Freeze point. The Coolant is water and Propylene Glycol mixed seeking % Glycol in the mixture. The Windshield Washer fluid is a Methanol and Water mix where they want to know % Methanol. These define freeze point.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is the ideal way to measure automotive fluids. The refractometer can be programmed with scales for ethylene glycol (EG) & propylene glycol (PG) engine coolants, methanol for windshield washer fluid, and even brake fluid moisture content. You can select from refractometer scales that display freeze point or concentration for any of these fluids. Use the filters on the Product/Digital Handheld page to select a refractometer with the scales that you need. If you cannot find a refractometer that fits your needs, try the Build-Your-Own Refractometer section or call MISCO customer service. We will be happy to custom program a refractometer for you with the exact scales you need.

How do you know when to change DOT brake fluid?

It is generally believed that a moisture content of less than 2% is safe for most driving conditions in most parts of the U.S. Conventional wisdom says that a moisture content of 2 to 3% is marginal and that it should absolutely be changed at 3%. You should consult your vehicles owner’s manual or vehicle manufacturer for their recommendations with respect to your specific car. A car generally absorbs about 1% moisture per year of service life. Many motor vehicle companies recommend changing brake fluid every 12-months, others recommend changing every 24-months. The amount of moisture that brake fluid absorbs depends on a number of factors including the type of fluid, humidity, type of brake hoses, condition of the seals and mileage.

Do you know of a refractometer that measures the shelf-life of DEF? I’m not as concerned about our contamination as I am the risk. I’ve heard that comes from it sitting idle in a tank for too long.

A Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) refractometer cannot tell you the quality or shelf-life of the DEF, it can only provide you a measure of urea concentration. However, a concentration measurement can tell you if the DEF is over or under concentrated, and may indicate tampering. The MISCO DEF201 and DEF202 digital handheld refractometers can measure the concentration of urea in DEF but this is a measure of concentration only.

I have a model 10440 Refractometer. My question is what reading should i get for lead-acid batteries at full charge? I currently am reading from 16 to 26 on two different batteries.

The MISCO 10440VP is a great refractometer for testing the concentration of metalworking fluids but it is the wrong instrument for measuring state of charge of lead-acid batteries.

A better choice would be either the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester, a handheld traditional analog refractometer with a scale for reading the specific gravity of battery electrolyte, or, the Palm Abbe digital refractometer with scales for sulfuric acid concentration.

There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, and percent by weight. The range for the specific gravity scale (D20/20) for the MISCO 7084VP+ is 1.00 to 1.400 and the range for the Palm Abbe digital refractometer is from 1.000 to 1.501. The Palm Abbe is an order of magnitude more accurate than the 7084VP+.

Could I use a Refractometer to measure the density of flooded batteries. Density is 1.200-1.260?

We have two great tools for measuring the density of battery electrolyte in flooded batteries. The first is the MISCO 7084VP+ Glycol and Battery Tester. The 7084VP+ is a traditional analog refractometer with a scale for the specific gravity of sulfuric acid from 1.000 to 1.400. There are also a number of scales available for the MISCO Palm Abbe digital refractometer that can measure sulfuric acid density, specific gravity, concentration (% by weight) well beyond your range of interest.

Products:
Glycol and Battery Tester ; Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol,  ; Battery Acid Scales  ; Freeze Point °C  Specific Gravity ; MISCO 7064VP+ Refractometer

Glycol and Battery Tester – Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Battery Acid Scales   Freeze Point °F Specific Gravity  MISCO 7084VP+ Refractometer

Can you use a refractometer to measure DEF Quantity? Is it acceptable practice to add water to adjust over-concentrated samples?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer (DEF201 or DEF202) can be used to very accurately measure urea concentration in DEF to +/-0.1%. DEF is a composition of ultra-pure urea and demineralized water. ISO standards call for DEF to be 32.5% (+/-0.8%). If your DEF is over-concentrated, due to evaporation, you can add demineralized water to return the measurement to 32.5%. However, you should NEVER add tap water or well water to a DEF. Doing so can cause irreparable damage to your SCR components.

Do you have a digital model for reading the specific gravity of lead acid battery?

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer represents the perfect method for measuring the concentration or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4), or state of charge, in a lead-acid battery. There are several sulfuric acid scales available for the Palm Abbe refractometer including, specific gravity, density, percent by weight. Try our Build-Your-Own section. You can choose up to 5 custom scales!

Washer Fluid (1)

We are specifically wanting to measure both Engine Coolant and Windshield Washer Fluid for % concentration and Freeze point. The Coolant is water and Propylene Glycol mixed seeking % Glycol in the mixture. The Windshield Washer fluid is a Methanol and Water mix where they want to know % Methanol. These define freeze point.

The Palm Abbe digital refractometer is the ideal way to measure automotive fluids. The refractometer can be programmed with scales for ethylene glycol (EG) & propylene glycol (PG) engine coolants, methanol for windshield washer fluid, and even brake fluid moisture content. You can select from refractometer scales that display freeze point or concentration for any of these fluids. Use the filters on the Product/Digital Handheld page to select a refractometer with the scales that you need. If you cannot find a refractometer that fits your needs, try the Build-Your-Own Refractometer section or call MISCO customer service. We will be happy to custom program a refractometer for you with the exact scales you need.

Wine (4)

Hi, I just bought the Palm Abbe refractometer with 5 scales from you. I have tried it at our office but I cannot get it come to the right results. We are only going to measure total sugar content and alcohol in wines (finished wines). I have calibrated it with distilled water and it seems to measure water to 0.0 every time which is ok. As soon as i measure alcohol in red wine it always shows too high digits – up to 18-20% ABV and the sugar is always too high. What may the problem be in this case?

The problem is that you cannot directly measure the alcohol content in finished wine using a refractometer. Once fermentation begins ethanol and the residual sugar interfere with each other and prevent an accurate reading of either sugar content or alcohol content. The best method for determining the alcohol content in the wine is distillation. There are also some good methods of estimating alcohol and sugar content during fermentation and later in the finished wine. For more information, download a copy of our free guide, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

We are a small winery on premise in Michigan and we make our wines from Must and kits only, we don’t crush the grapes. Is there a refractometer you could recommend for our purposes which could tell us actual specific gravity and Actual Alcohol readings of finished wine?

A refractometer is very useful at nearly all stages of wine production. It can be used to help assess the ripeness of grapes before harvest, predict alcohol content from the must, measure the sugar content of must, monitor the fermentation process, and determine the alcohol by volume (ABV) of the finished wine. A refractometer with the Brix scale is the best method of determining the sugar concentration of the grapes and must. Scales are available that can predict the alcohol content of the finished wine based on must measurements. Once fermentation begins ethanol will interfere with sugar readings and you will not be able to take direct readings of either alcohol content or sugar content, without using special techniques. Once the wine is finished, the same refractometer, with an ethanol scale, can be used to measure the distillate of the wine to accurately determine alcohol content.
Click the following link to download a copy of our technical bulletin on “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.”

I am interested in the VIN06 refractometer for the determination of alcohol in fortified wines. What is the process for determining the alcohol – it appears you have to distil the wine before measuring it with the refractometer. How would I do this?

You cannot directly measure the alcohol content in a finished wine with a refractometer. However, you can distil the wine and then use the alcohol scale on the Palm Abbe digital refractometer to measure the ethanol content of the distillate. More information can be found in our technical bulletin  “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.

How accurate is your refractometer when alcohol is present? Can I measure R.S. [residual sugar] in wine? thanks

Alcohol and sugar interferes with each other when measuring finished wine with a refractometer. You cannot measure the alcohol content in a finished wine directly using a refractometer, nor can you directly measure the residual sugar content. There are however, a couple of tricks that you can use to determine alcohol content and residual sugar content using a refractometer. These methods and more are discussed in detail in our technical bulletin, “Using Refractometers to Increase the Efficiency of Vineyard Management and Winemaking.